Fraunhofer-Institut für Produktionsanlagen und Konstruktionstechnik IPK
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PublicationMicro-milling of a sprue structure in tungsten carbide-based metal matrix composite( 2021)
;Uhlmann, E. ;Polte, J. ;Polte, M. ;Hein, C. ;Hocke, T.Jahnke, C.Many industries rely on plastic components manufactured by micro-injection moulding. There is a high potential to further increase the cost-effectiveness by machining the moulds needed for this process from non-ferrous metals and reinforcing the parts of the mould, which experience high loads during the micro-injection moulding. Inserting tungsten carbide particles locally into the surface of these non-ferrous metals is one possibility of reinforcement. The resulting metal-matrix-composites (MMC) exhibit the needed wear resistance, while the ground material can be machined very effectively through micro-milling. In contrast, the Micro-milling of these MMC-materials is challenging and so far not state of the art. Thus, this investigation is concerned with the development and qualification of micro-milling parameters for tungsten carbide-based MMC-materials. Binderless polycrystalline diamond as innovative cutting material was applied for this purpose. The goal of the mil ling parameter development was to optimize the surface roughness and the form accuracy for machining an aluminium bronze workpiece reinforced with tungsten carbide particles through laser injection. Based on an analysis of a wide range of process parameters, an optimised milling strategy was applied to machine a sprue structure from the described MMC-material. Different parameter sets are evaluated by analysing the form accuracy and measuring the surface roughness of machined structures. A surface roughness of Ra = 80 nm and form accuracy of a = 3 Âµm could be achieved with optimized micro-milling parameters and qualified the developed parameters for industrial applications.
PublicationDevelopment of a mechanical, biocide-free method of disinfection for cathodic dip coating processes( 2021)
;Uhlmann, E. ;Hilt, M. ;Hein, C. ;Cudazzo, M. ;Huth-Herms, K. ;Jahnke, C.Quast, M.Technical fluids are often contaminated by bacteria as Burkholderia cepacia (B. cepacia), which is found in different industrial issues and affects manufacturing process chains by the formation of planktonic cell-aggregates and biofilms within the working fluids. B. cepacia is one of nine species of the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc), a group of gram-negative, motile, non-spore-forming, and rod-shaped bacteria. Because of the opportunistic pathogenicity to plants, animals, humans, and the multi-drug and biocide resistance, B. cepacia is difficult to treat. This study aims to provide an application to reduce the germ numbers ng in an eco-friendly and continuous process without the use of biocides. The approach to disinfect technical fluids is to apply high shear forces in a rotor-stator assembly to the fluid. A prototype of the rotor-stator assembly with a variably adjustable shear gap gs and rotor speed srot was constructed. First experiments with a frequency frot 1 0 Hz â¤ frot â¤ 40 Hz a shear gap gs = 83 Âµm and gs = 166 Âµm showed a reduction of germ number ngr = 99.6 %. It concluded that the disinfection of technical fluids by a rotor-stator assembly is a biocide-free alternative. In addition to defined process parameters such as shear gap gS, temperature Ï, frequency frot and time of machining process tmp, also the peripheral speed vp, rotational speed vrot, flow rate fr and shear stresses Ï were used to assess the machining result and to develop an overall concept for disinfection of technical fluids.
PublicationTool wear prevention in ultra-precision polymer machining( 2020)
;Uhlmann, E. ;Fang, F. ;Polte, J. ;Hein, C. ;Lai, M. ;Dörr, M.Jahnke, C.Polymers become more relevant in the field of optical components as their optical properties, like refractive index n and wavelength dependent dispersion n = f(Î»), can be adjusted easily by additives. Due to their low density Ï polymeric optics are lightweight compared to glasses. The demand for ultra-precision machined polymer lenses is increasing. Small series and individualised components can only be produced economically by using ultra-precision machining. Within theses studies the influence of different measures to reduce diamond tool wear occurring during ultra-precision diamond face turning of polycarbonate (PC) and polysulfone (PSU) will be investigated. Continuous and interrupted face turning experiments are conducted to analyse the effects from separation of the diamond tool and workpiece. Results show increasing tool wear in interrupted cutting. Changes of the environmental conditions in the cutting process show an influence of increasing humidity H on diam ond tool wear. This contribution gives a qualitative and quantitative overview on the influencing factors on diamond tool wear in ultra-precision turning of polymers and gives an outlook on strategies to avoid its occurrence.
PublicationMicro-cutting of a MMC-composite for enhanced injection moulds( 2019)
;Uhlmann, E. ;Polte, M. ;Hein, C. ;Polte, J.Jahnke, C.Tools for micro-injection moulding are currently made of hardened steel. These tools are exposed to high local loads, which significantly reduce the injection moulding tool life time tT. Furthermore, the occurring wear of the milling tool during machining of hardened steel leads to reduced surface roughness Ra and geometrical accuracy GF. Copper and aluminium alloys as mould materials provide an alternative to hardened steel with advantages regarding material removal rate QW and wear of the milling tool, but with a significantly reduced life time of the injection moulding tool tT. Until now, the combination of a good machinability and high wear resistance cannot be achieved. The approach, presented in this paper consists of an easy to machine material and the development of a wear resistant metal-matrix-composite (MMC) material layer with a hardness of up to 3,000 HV. Therefore, the pre-machined test specimens made of aluminium-bronze are coated by laser dispersing with wolfram-carbide-particles W2C-WC. Furthermore, for the finishing machining of the coated moulds, a cutting technology for the machining of W2C-WC-particles was developed. The verification of the developed technology was performed with an injection moulding process based on carbon-fibre reinforced thermoplastic material. By means of documented machining efforts, the quality indicators geometrical accuracy GF and surface roughness Ra as well as occurring tool wear, the feasibility of the developed technology was demonstrated.
PublicationDie-sinking EDM of a SiC-boride-composite( 2019)
;Uhlmann, E. ;Polte, J. ;Jahnke, C. ;Wolf, C.-S.Degenhardt, U.Silicon carbide-based composites are highly demanded for industrial applications, like heat exchangers in corrosive environments. In consequence of the mechanical properties like high hardness H and brittleness, cutting processes are still challenging. An opportunity for processing difficult-to-cut materials with sufficient electrical conductivity s is electrical discharge machining (EDM). In order to develop suitable machining technologies, known parameters for common material combinations can serve as a starting point. Hence, standard technologies from the database of a commercial die-sinking EDM machine tool were applied for machining a silicon carbide-boride-composite. The material removal rate QW and the arithmetical mean deviation Ra for finishing and roughing operations are observed. The formation of cracks and the extend of the typical deposition layer formed at the surface of the workpiece is analysed through scanning electron microscopy. While the material removal rate QW is increasing with higher discharge energies W in this investigation, the arithmetical mean deviation Ra is not dependent on this property. Furthermore, spalling is identified as main material removal mechanism occurring in this process. Overall, the machinability of silicon carbide-boride composites with EDM, applying commercial available parameter technologies, is successfully demonstrated.