Fraunhofer-Institut für Produktionsanlagen und Konstruktionstechnik IPK
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PublicationMicrocrack formation during gas metal arc welding of high-strength fine-grained structural steel( 2014)
;Heinze, C. ;Michael, T. ;Pittner, A.Rethmeier, M.The recent development of high-performance-modified spray arc processes in gas metal arc welding due to modern digital control technology and inverter power sources enables a focused spray arc, which results in higher penetration depths and welding speed. However, microcracks occurred in the weld metal while approaching the process limits of the modified spray arc, represented by a 20-mm double layer DV-groove butt-weld. These cracks were detected in structural steel exhibiting a yield strength level of up to 960 MPa and are neither dependent on the used weld power source nor a consequence of the modified spray arc process itself. The metallographic and fractographic investigations of the rather exceptional fracture surface lead to the classification of the microcracks as hot cracks. The effects of certain welding parameters on the crack probability are clarified using a statistical design of experiment. However, these microcracks do not impact the design specification for toughness in the Charpy V-notch test (absorbed energy at -40 °C for the present material is 30 J).
PublicationDependency of martensite start temperature on prior austenite grain size and its influence on welding-induced residual stresses( 2013)
;Heinze, C. ;Pittner, A. ;Rethmeier, M.Babu, S.S.Austenite grain growth during welding is a critical factor for controlling weld microstructure in addition to nominal composition and thermal cycles. Recently, experimental data suggesting a decrease in martensite start temperature with a decrease in prior austenite grain size has been published. However, the actual sensitivity of this phenomenon on residual stresses evolution in the heat-affected zone has not been investigated, yet. Therefore, a numerical model was modified to consider this phenomenon. Numerical simulations were performed for welding of a low-alloy structural steel with minimum yield strength of 355 MPa (S355J2+N) and a heat-resistant steel P91 or 9Cr-1Mo, respectively. The results clarify the influence of prior austenite grain size on the residual stress development and show the importance martensite transformation temperatures and final martensite fraction. Consequently, the residual stress evolution of P91, which completely transforms to martensite while cooling, based on the enhanced model leads to maximum stress differences of 200 MPa in the heat-affected zone.
PublicationNumerical calculation of residual stress development of multi-pass gas metal arc welding( 2012)
;Heinze, C. ;Schwenk, C.Rethmeier, M.In various applications, welding-induced residual stresses have a substantial impact on the integrity of welded constructions. Tensile residual stress can promote stress-corrosion cracking, brittle fracture, and reduces the fatigue life in service, as well as influences component design due to critical stress concentrations within the component. In the present paper, a six bead multi-pass gas metal arc weld of 20 mm thick structural steel S355J2+N is experimentally and numerically investigated. The studies include transient 2D and 3D numerical calculations which consider temperature-dependent material properties, phase transformations, "thermal" tempering, transformation plasticity, volume change due to phase transformation, an elastic-plastic material model, and isotropic strain hardening. The experimentally determined and calculated residual stresses are in a good agreement. Furthermore, the influence of the preheat and interpass temperature on welding-induced residua l stresses is shown in the present investigation.
PublicationThe effect of tack welding on numerically calculated welding-induced distortion( 2012)
;Heinze, C. ;Schwenk, C.Rethmeier, M.A single-layer pulsed gas metal arc weld of structural steel S355J2+N with a thickness of 5 mm is experimentally and numerically investigated. Two tack welds are considered in the numerical simulation into two different ways. First, the tack welds are represented by elements belonging to the initial material. This implies that the "tack weld material" was not exposed to any thermal load or phase transformation before actual welding was performed. The weld seam is shortened and there is an influence on the stiffness of the whole structure affecting the calculation result. Secondly, the tack welds were simulated as conducted in the experimental welding procedure. The cases considering tack welding are compared to a simulation neglecting tack welding and to the experimental results. The influence of tack welds on the calculated welding-induced distortion is clarified and a contribution to an improved simulation-based prediction of welding-induced distortion is possible by modeling tack welding according to the realistic fabrication procedure.
PublicationNumerical calculation of residual stress development of multi-pass gas metal arc welding under high restraint conditions( 2012)
;Heinze, C. ;Schwenk, C.Rethmeier, M.During welding, residual stresses build-up created by the steep thermal gradient that occurs in the weld zone from localized heating and cooling, and phase transformations appearing in low-alloyed structural steel is inevitable. Welding of rather simple test plates do not cover the actual structural effects, which have to be considered during real component welding. However, the resulting welding-induced residual stress state is highly influenced by the structural characteristics, i.e. restraint conditions, of the welded construction. Therefore, a unique large-scale testing facility providing a specific shrinkage restraint while welding and subsequent cooling was used for the present investigations. Hereby, a six bead multi-pass gas metal arc weld of 20. mm thick structural steel S355J2 + N was welded under shrinkage restraint. The residual stresses were experimentally and numerically investigated, and compared to an analysis of plates welded under force-free support an d free shrinkage conditions.The experimentally determined and calculated residual stresses using both 2D and 3D numerical models are in a good agreement. Furthermore, the influence of a shrinkage restraint on the residual stress distribution is both experimentally and numerically shown for the present test set-up.
PublicationEffect of heat source configuration on the result quality of numerical calculation of welding-induced distortion( 2012)
;Heinze, C. ;Schwenk, C.Rethmeier, M.The results of numerical welding simulations strongly depend on its temperature field. In the present paper, the temperature field of a pulsed gas metal arc weld of structural steel S355J2+N (ASTM A572 Gr. 50) with a thickness of 5 mm is experimentally and numerically investigated. In the case of temperature field validation, volumetric Gauss and double-ellipsoid Goldak heat sources are applied. Additionally, different heat source configurations, including adaptations of thermal conductivity, are analyzed regarding their influence on the calculation of welding-induced distortion. The investigations clarify the influence of heat source configurations on the calculated results, thus, contribute to an improved prediction of welding-induced distortion.
PublicationInfluences on the result quality of numerical calculation of welding-induced distortion( 2011)
;Heinze, C. ;Rethmeier, M.Schwenk, C.
PublicationOptimierung von Verzug und Eigenspannungen beim Schweißen dickwandiger Bauteile(Verlag und Vertriebsgesellschaft m.b.H., 2011)
;Heinze, C. ;Schwenk, C.Rethmeier, M.
PublicationNumerical sensitivity analysis of welding-induced residual stress depending on variations in continuous cooling transformation behavior( 2011)
;Heinze, C. ;Schwenk, C. ;Rethmeier, M.Caron, J.The usage of continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagrams in numerical welding simulations is state of the art. Nevertheless, specifications provide limits in chemical composition of materials which result in different CCT behavior and CCT diagrams, respectively. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze the influence of variations in CCT diagrams on the developing residual stresses. In the present paper, four CCT diagrams and their effect on numerical calculation of residual stresses are investigated for the widely used structural steel S355J2 + N welded by the gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process. Rather than performing an arbitrary adjustment of CCT behavior, four justifiable data sets were used as input to the numerical calculation: data available in the Sysweld database, experimental data acquired through Gleeble dilatometry tests, and TTT/CCT predictions calculated from the JMatPro and Edison Welding Institute (EWI) Virtual Joining Portal software. The performed numerical analyses resulted in noticeable deviations in residual stresses considering the different CCT diagrams. Furthermore, possibilities to improve the prediction of distortions and residual stress based on CCT behavior are discussed.
PublicationInfluences of mesh density and transformation behavior on the result quality of numerical calculation of welding induced distortion( 2011)
;Heinze, C. ;Schwenk, C.Rethmeier, M.Welding simulation is a powerful, cost-efficient tool to predict welding induced distortion. Nevertheless, effects on calculation result quality are often unknown, thus, sensitivity analyses should be performed to evaluate the influences of certain parameters on distortion development. In the present paper, a single-layer gas metal arc (GMA) weld of 5 mm thick structural steel S355J2+N is experimentally and numerically investigated. Subsequent to welding, the numerical modeling begins with a mesh analysis based on modal analyses. Hereby, the influence of different coarsening methods and element edge length (EEL) in welding direction on the deformation behavior or the stiffness of the discrete geometry is the focus of the analysis. Secondly, phase transformations in structural steels such as S355J2+N are decisive for final product properties. The sensitivity of welding-induced distortion is examined regarding different continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagrams for S355J2+N. The present investigations deal with different relevant influences on numerical calculation of welding-induced distortion. The quality and quantity of these effects are clarified based on the experimental and numerical set-up employed. Consequently, prediction of welding-induced distortion is possible and potential for pre-production optimization is present.