Now showing 1 - 10 of 5957
  • Publication
    Laserstrahlhybridschweißen von Türmen für Windkraftanlagen
    ( 2022-08-29)
    Üstündag, Ömer
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    Bakir, Nasim
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    Knöfel, Frieder
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    Das Laserstrahlhybridschweißen ist beim Schweißen von Türmen für Windkraftanlagen eine Alternative zum Unterpulverschweißen von Dickblechen in Mehrlagentechnik und bietet hier ökonomische und ökologische Vorteile. Der industrielle Einsatz des Verfahrens ist jedoch durch prozessspezifische Herausforderungen eingeschränkt. Die im Beitrag beschriebene kontaktlose elektromagnetische Badstütze dient zur Erweiterung des Verfahrenspotenzials im Dickblechbereich >15 mm.
  • Publication
    Material-adapted and process-reliable multi-wire submerged arc welding of large-diameter pipes
    ( 2022-03-07) ; ; ; ;
    Lichtenthäler, Frank
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    Stark, Michael
    Ensuring the required mechanical-technological properties of welds is a critical issue in the application of multi-wire submerged arc welding processes in the manufacture of largediameter pipes made of high-strength fine-grained steels of grade X70 and higher according to API 5L. Excessive heat input of up to 10 kJ/mm is one of the main causes of the formation of microstructural areas in the heat-affected zone with deteriorated mechanical properties, such as impact toughness and tensile strength. In this work, a variant of a five-wire submerged arc welding process is proposed that reduces the weld volume and the heat input, while retaining the high process stability and production speed of multi-wire submerged arc welding. By adapting the welding wire configuration of a five-wire submerged arc welding process and the energetic parameters of the arcs, the high penetration depth of approx. 24 mm and a 10 % reduction in the weld cross-section could be achieved compared to the usual process configuration. This effect was transformed into a higher welding speed, which led to a reduction in the heat input. A concept for process monitoring is proposed in order to maintain constant manufacturing quality in large-diameter pipe production. In addition to the analysis of electrical process signals such as welding current and welding voltage, acoustic process monitoring using vibro-acoustic sensors provides reliable information on the stability of the welding process.
  • Publication
    Study on the transition behavior of the bulging effect during deep penetration laser beam welding
    ( 2022)
    Artinov, A.
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    Meng, X.
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    Bachmann, M.
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    Rethmeier, M.
    The present work is devoted to the study of the transition behavior of the recently confirmed widening of the weld pool, known as the bulging effect, during high-power deep penetration laser beam welding of thick unalloyed steel sheets. A three-dimensional transient multi-physics numerical model is developed, allowing for the prediction of the bulge formation and the study of its temporal behavior. The model is generalized to account automatically for the transition from partial to complete penetration. Several experimental measurements and observations, such as drilling period, weld pool length, temperature, efficiency, and metallographic cross-sections are used to verify the model and assure the plausibility of the numerical results. The analysis of the calculated temperature and velocity distributions, as well as the evolution of the keyhole geometry, show that the formation of a bulging region strongly depends on the penetration depth of the weld. Based on the numerical results, the bulge is found to occur transiently, having its transition from a slight bulge to a fully developed bulging between penetration depths of 6 mm and 9 mm, respectively.
  • Publication
    Hybrid laser-arc welding of laser- and plasma-cut 20-mm-thick structural steels
    ( 2022)
    Üstündag, Ömer
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    Bakir, Nasim
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    ; ;
    It is already known that the laser beam welding (LBW) or hybrid laser-arc welding (HLAW) processes are sensitive to manufacturing tolerances such as gaps and misalignment of the edges, especially at welding of thick-walled steels due to its narrow beam diameter. Therefore, the joining parts preferably have to be milled. The study deals with the influence of the edge quality, the gap and the misalignment of edges on the weld seam quality of hybrid laser-arc welded 20-mm-thick structural steel plates which were prepared by laser and plasma cutting. Single-pass welds were conducted in butt joint configuration. An AC magnet was used as a contactless backing. It was positioned under the workpiece during the welding process to prevent sagging. The profile of the edges and the gap between the workpieces were measured before welding by a profile scanner or a digital camera, respectively. With a laser beam power of just 13.7 kW, the single-pass welds could be performed. A gap bridgeability up to 1 mm at laser-cut and 2 mm at plasma-cut samples could be reached respectively. Furthermore, a misalignment of the edges up to 2 mm could be welded in a single pass. The new findings may eliminate the need for cost and time-consuming preparation of the edges.
  • Publication
    Multiple-Wire Submerged Arc Welding of High-Strength Fine-Grained Steels
    ( 2022)
    Gook, S.
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    ; ; ;
    Lichtenthäler, F.
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    Stark, M.
    Ensuring the required mechanical-technological properties of welds is a critical issue in the application of multi-wire submerged arc welding process for welding high-strength fine-grained steels. Excessive heat input is one of the main causes for microstructural zones with deteriorated mechanical properties of the welded joint, such as a reduced notched impact strength and a lower structural robustness. A process variant is proposed which reduces the weld volume as well as the heat input by adjusting the welding wire configuration as well as the energetic parameters of the arcs, while retaining the advantages of multi-wire submerged arc welding such as high process stability and production speed.
  • Publication
    In situ microstructure analysis of Inconel 625 during laser powder bed fusion
    ( 2022)
    Schmeiser, F.
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    Krohmer, E.
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    Wagner, C.
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    Schell, N.
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    Uhlmann, E.
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    Reimers, W.
    Laser powder bed fusion is an additive manufacturing process that employs highly focused laser radiation for selective melting of a metal powder bed. This process entails a complex heat flow and thermal management that results in characteristic, often highly textured microstructures, which lead to mechanical anisotropy. In this study, high-energy X-ray diffraction experiments were carried out to illuminate the formation and evolution of microstructural features during LPBF. The nickel-base alloy Inconel 625 was used for in situ experiments using a custom LPBF system designed for these investigations. The diffraction patterns yielded results regarding texture, lattice defects, recrystallization, and chemical segregation. A combination of high laser power and scanning speed results in a strong preferred crystallographic orientation, while low laser power and scanning speed showed no clear texture. The observation of a constant gauge volume revealed solid-state texture changes without remelting. They were related to in situ recrystallization processes caused by the repeated laser scanning. After recrystallization, the formation and growth of segregations were deduced from an increasing diffraction peak asymmetry and confirmed by ex situ scanning transmission electron microscopy.
  • Publication
    Methodology for a reverse engineering process chain with focus on customized segmentation and iterative closest point algorithms
    ( 2022) ;
    Schröder, Robert
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    Stark, Rainer
    One-off construction is characterized by a multiplicity of manual manufacturing processes whereby it is based on consistent use of digital models. Since the actual state of construction does not match the digital models without manually updating them, the authors propose a method to automatically detect deviations and reposition the model data according to reality. The first essential method is based on the ""Segmentation of Unorganized Points and Recognition of Simple Algebraic Surfaces"" presented by Vanco et al.. The second method is the customization of the iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm. The authors present the overall structure of the implemented software, based on open source and relate it to the general reverse engineering (RE) framework by Buonamici et al.. A highlight will be given on: the general architecture of the software prototype; a customized segmentation and clustering of unorganized points and recognition of simple algebraic surfaces; the deviation analysis with a customized iterative closest point (CICP) algorithm Especially in the field of one-off construction, characterized by small and medium companies, automated assessment of 3D scan data during the design process is still in its infancy. By using an open source environment progress for consistent use of digital models could be accelerated.
  • Publication
    Redundancy Concepts for Real-Time Cloud- and Edge-based Control of Autonomous Mobile Robots
    ( 2022)
    Nouruzi-Pur, Jan
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    Lambrecht, Jens
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    Nguyen, The Duy
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    Deploying navigation algorithms on an edge or cloud server according to the Software-as-a-Service paradigm has many advantages for autonomous mobile robots in indus-trial environments, e.g. cooperative planning and less onboard energy consumption. However, outsourcing corresponding real-time critical control functions requires a high level of reliability, which cannot be guaranteed either by modern wireless networks nor by the outsourced computing infrastructure. This work introduces redundancy concepts, which enable real-time capability within these uncertain infrastructures by providing redundant computation nodes, as well as robot-controlled switching between them. Redundancies can vary regarding their physical location, robot behavior during the switchover process and degree of activeness while quality of service concerning the primary controller is sufficient. In the case that fallback redun-dancies are not continuously active, when a disturbance occurs an initial state estimation of the robot pose has to be provided and an activation time has to be anticipated. To gain some insights on expected behavior, redundant computation nodes are deployed locally on the robot and on an outsourced computation node and consequently evaluated empirically. Quantitative and qualitative results in simulation and a real environment show that redun-dancies help to significantly improve the robot-trajectory within an unreliable network. Moreover, resource-saving redundancies, which are not continuously active, can robustly take over control by using an estimated state.
  • Publication
    Simulativer Vergleich tubularer Peltierelemente
    Der Einsatz von Peltierelementen bietet in der Temperierung von Prozessen und Bauteilen einen großen Vorteil gegenüber der in technischen Anwendungen üblicherweise eingesetzten Fluidkühlung. Sie pumpen Wärme rein elektrisch und stellen Temperaturen sehr schnell sowie präzise ein. Für eine neuartige, thermoelektrisch temperierte Motorspindel wurden in Kooperation zwischen dem Fraunhofer-Institut für Physikalische Messtechnik IPM und dem Institut für Werkzeugmaschinen und Fabrikbetrieb IWF der Technischen Universität Berlin zwei unterschiedliche Ansätze tubularer Peltierelemente simulativ verglichen. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass es mit beiden Konzepten möglich ist, induzierte Wärmeströme am Lagersitz abzu­führen, um diesen auf eine vorgegebene Temperatur zu regeln.