Fraunhofer-Institut für Produktionsanlagen und Konstruktionstechnik IPK
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PublicationAnalysis and recycling of bronze grinding waste to produce maritime components using directed energy deposition( 2021)
; ;Marko, Angelina ;Kruse, Tobias ;Additive manufacturing promises a high potential for the maritime sector. Directed Energy Deposition (DED) in particular offers the opportunity to produce large-volume maritime components like propeller hubs or blades without the need of a costly casting process. The post processing of such components usually generates a large amount of aluminum bronze grinding waste. The aim of the presented project is to develop a sustainable circular AM process chain for maritime components by recycling aluminum bronze grinding waste to be used as raw material to manufacture ship propellers with a laser-powder DED process. In the present paper, grinding waste is investigated using a dynamic image analysis system and compared to commercial DED powder. To be able to compare the material quality and to verify DED process parameters, semi-academic sample geometries are manufactured.
PublicationResilienz im strategischen Management produzierender Unternehmen. Konzeptpapier(Fraunhofer IPT, 2021)
; ; ; ; ; ;Sihn, Wilfried ;Steinwender, Arko ;Sala, Alessandro ; ; ;Während Resilienz in anderen Managementdisziplinen, wie etwa im Bereich der Lieferketten, bereits seit längerer Zeit Einzug gehalten hat, existieren für das strategische Management von produzierenden Unternehmen kaum systematische Untersuchungen zu dessen Integration. Im Rahmen des Konzeptpapiers werden dem Leser daher konzeptionelle Ansatzpunkte aufgezeigt, wie Resilienz als neue normative Zielgröße in exemplarischen Teilstrategien des Strategiesystems produzierender Unternehmen Berücksichtigung findet (bspw. der Unternehmens-, Technologie- und Innovations-, Engineering- sowie Produktionsstrategie).
PublicationValidierung von Methoden zur Vermeidung von Liquid Metal Embrittlement an realitätsnahen Prinzipbauteilen (IGF 21483 BG / P 1488)( 2021)
;Meyerdierks, Martin ;Schreiber, Vincent ;Böhne, Christoph ; ;Jüttner, Sven ;Meschut, GersonZiel des Forschungsprojekts ist es, eine Korrelation zwischen Gleeble-Heißzug-Prüfverfahren und Widerstandspunktschweiß-basierten Prüfverfahren herzustellen. Es soll die Effektivität von Methoden zu Vermeidung von Liquid Metal Embrittlement an realitätsnahen Prinzipbauteilen bewertet werden. Weiterhin soll Kenntnis über Auswirkungen von LME Rissen auf das Tragverhalten von realitätsnahen Prinzipbauteilen gewonnen werden.
PublicationInertial Measurement Unit based Human Action Recognition for Soft-Robotic Exoskeleton( 2021)
; ;Burgdorff, Moritz ;Filaretov, HristoAbsence from work caused by overloading the musculoskeletal system lowers the life quality of the worker and gains unnecessary costs for both the employer and the health system. Exoskeletons can present a solution. Typically, such systems struggle with stiffness and discomfort and primarily a lack of battery lifetime. Soft-robotic exoskeletons offer a possibility to overcome these problems by increasing the system flexibility, not limiting the supported DoF and being actuator and joint together. Since soft-robotic exoskeletons can be designed only using power when supporting the wearer, it is possible to increase the battery lifetime by only acting on those actions for which the wearer needs support. Dealing with controls for soft-robotic exoskeleton one major difficulty is to find a compromise between saving energy and supporting the wearer. Having an action-depending control can reduce the supported actions to cover only relevant ones and increase the lifetime of the battery. The system conditions are to detect the user actions in real-time and distinguish between actions which require support and those which do not. We contribute an analysis and modification of human action recognition(HAR) benchmark algorithms from activities of the daily living, transferred them onto industrial use cases containing short and mid-term action and reduce the models to be compatible using embedded computers for real-time recognition on soft exoskeletons. We identified the most common challenges for inertial measurement units based HAR and compare the best-performing algorithms using a newly recorded data set overhead car assembly for industrial relevance. As a benchmark data set we focused on the "Opportunity" data set. By introducing orientation estimation, we were able to increase the F1 scores by up to 0.04. With an overall F1 score without a Null-class of up to 0.883, we were able to lay the foundation to use HAR for action dependent force support.
PublicationConceptual Introduction of required development capabilities for Model-Based Systems Engineering( 2021)
;Schmidt, Marvin M. ; ;Zimmermann, Thomas C.Stark, RainerIn the last years, multiple tools and methodologies have emerged that try to support the engineers to conduct Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE). Nevertheless, the tools are usually bound to a certain methodology, which often requires sequential steps instead of supporting the iterative character of modern product development. In this paper, we conceptually introduce the development capabilities of the 5D model for MBSE as a convenient way to cover all relevant aspects of MBSE in an iterative way while being open to methodology and tool choice.
PublicationWhite Paper »RESYST«. Resiliente Wertschöpfung in der produzierenden Industrie - innovativ, erfolgreich, krisenfest(Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft, 2021)
; ; ;Glawar, Robert ;Heller, Thomas ; ; ; ; ; ; ;Ziel des White Papers zum Thema Resiliente Wertschöpfung ist es, die Ergebnisse aus dem Fraunhofer-Innovationsprogramm Resiliente Wertschöpfungssysteme (»RESYST«) einer breiten Öffentlichkeit aus Wirtschaft, Wissenschaft und Politik zugänglich zu machen. Im Lichte aktueller Erfahrungen aus der Corona-Pandemie, aber auch der Hochwasserkatastrophe greift das Innovationsprogramm die Anforderungen des Wirtschaftsstandorts Deutschland an resiliente und dynamische Wertschöpfungssysteme bei gleichbleibend hoher Produktivität und Individualisierung auf. Resilienz gegenüber Krisen und Störfällen aller Art entwickelt sich somit zum entscheidenden Wettbewerbsfaktor.
PublicationProduction environment of tomorrow (ProMo)( 2021)
; ; ;Monchinger, Stephan ; ;Small defects in the grain or major damage to a moulded part or tool can bring production to a standstill. SMEs in particular have neither the personnel nor the equipment to repair such damage on their own, so they send it to specialised contractors. The repair process is carried out manually, depending on the accuracy requirements, and is usually completed by a finishing process. This work requires qualified personnel and, at the same time, requires a lot of time in case of larger damages. In this paper we present a way to map the Maintenance, Repair and Operations (MRO) process chain in a partially automated manner. The symbiosis of individual technologies results in a significantly increased efficiency of the MRO process chain, which continues to focus on people and their process knowledge. While Directed Energy Deposition (DED) for the MRO of moulded parts is used widely, usually a high manual effort in measuring the component geometries and teaching of the machine tool paths is necessary. However, there are clear advantages compared to the manufacture of new parts or manual laser welding repair. At the same time, the resource and energy requirements can often be significantly reduced compared to new part production. ProMo focuses on automating the time-consuming machine programming by reducing the number of necessary work steps in CAD/CAM-based program creation. Based on a subsequent robot-guided scan, a digital actual 3D model is generated. Due to intelligent path planning algorithms, no manual programming of the robot is necessary and at the same time it is possible to detect components of different sizes, shapes and covers in this system with a minimum of effort. In addition, the operator passes on elementary information, such as the approach path of the milling head, to the subsequent processes by means of finger gestures and can thus significantly reduce tedious CAM programming steps. Now, the scanned component is transferred to a 3D-CAD model and a target/actual comparison is created for the damaged areas. Those are milled out in a defined manner and then restored using DED.
PublicationModel-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) as computer-supported approach for cooperative systems development( 2020)
;Schmidt, Marvin M.Stark, RainerWith rising globalization and a trend towards Cyberphysical systems (CPSs) as well as smart products the demand for cross-company and interdisciplinary collaboration increases. To handle the complexity of these systems and products Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE), as an enhanced form of Systems Engineering (SE), has emerged in engineering and is adopted by many companies. While this approach tries to cope with the current complexity trends, it does address the collaborative aspect of product creation only in a small scope. This paper shall address the combination of MBSE and collaboration in engineering to form a computer-supported approach for collaborative systems development.
PublicationDigital Twin Readiness Assessment( 2020)
; ; ; ;Dorfhuber, Lisa ;Samarajiwa, Markus ; ;Salamon, DavidStark, Rainer