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Global air quality and COVID-19 pandemic

Do we breathe cleaner air?
 
: Torkmahalleh, Mehdi Amouei; Akhmetvaliyeva, Zarina; Omran, Ali Darvishi; Omran, Faezeh Darvish; Kazemitabar, Mohadeseh; Naseri, Mahtab; Naseri, Motahareh; Sharifi, Hamed; Malekipirbazari, Milad; Adotey, Enoch Kwasi; Gorjinezhad, Soudabeh; Eghtesadi, Neda; Sabanov, Sergei; Alastuey, Andrés; Andrade, María de Fátima; Buonanno, Giorgio; Carbone, Samara; Cárdenas-Fuentes, Diego Ernesto; Cassee, Flemming R.; Dai, Qili; Henríquez, Andrés; Hopke, Philip K.; Keronen, Petri; Khwaja, Haider Abbas; Kim, Jong; Kulmala, Markku; Kumar, Prashant; Kushta, Jonilda; Kuula, Joel; Massagué, Jordi; Mitchell, Tamsin; Mooibroek, Dennis; Morawska, Lidia; Niemi, Jarkko V.; Ngagine, Soulemane Halif; Norman, Michael; Oyama, Beatríz; Oyola, Pedro; Öztürk, Fatma; Petäjä, Tuukka; Querol, Xavier; Rashidi, Yousef; Reyes, Felipe; Ross-Jones, Matthew; Salthammer, Tunga; Savvides, Chrysanthos; Stabile, Luca; Sjöberg, Karin; Söderlund, Karin; Raman, Ramya Sunder; Timonen, Hilkka; Umezawa, Masakazu; Viana, Mar; Xie, Shanju

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Fulltext ()

Aerosol and Air Quality Research : AAQR 21 (2021), 4, Art. 200567, 13 pp.
ISSN: 1680-8584 (Print)
ISSN: 2071-1409 (Online)
English
Journal Article, Electronic Publication
Fraunhofer WKI ()
SARS-CoV-2; global air quality; PM₂.₅; NO2; O3; COVID-19 pandemic

Abstract
The global spread of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has challenged most countries worldwide. It was quickly recognized that reduced activities (lockdowns) during the Coronavirus Disease of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic produced major changes in air quality. Our objective was to assess the impacts of COVID-19 lockdowns on ground-level PM₂.₅, NO₂, and O₃ concentrations on a global scale. We obtained data from 34 countries, 141 cities, and 458 air monitoring stations on 5 continents (few data from Africa). On a global average basis, a 34.0% reduction in NO₂ concentration and a 15.0% reduction in PM₂.₅ were estimated during the strict lockdown period (until April 30, 2020). Global average O₃ concentration increased by 86.0% during this same period. Individual country and continent-wise comparisons have been made between lockdown and business-as-usual periods. Universally, NO₂ was the pollutant most affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. These effects were likely because its emissions were from sources that were typically restricted (i.e., surface traffic and non-essential industries) by the lockdowns and its short lifetime in the atmosphere. Our results indicate that lockdown measures and resulting reduced emissions reduced exposure to most harmful pollutants and could provide global-scale health benefits. However, the increased O₃ may have substantially reduced those benefits and more detailed health assessments are required to accurately quantify the health gains. At the same, these restrictions were obtained at substantial economic costs and with other health issues (depression, suicide, spousal abuse, drug overdoses, etc.). Thus, any similar reductions in air pollution would need to be obtained without these extensive economic and other consequences produced by the imposed activity reductions.

: http://publica.fraunhofer.de/documents/N-633902.html