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Refractive index measurement of lithium ion battery electrolyte with etched surface cladding waveguide bragg gratings and cell electrode state monitoring by optical strain sensors

 
: Nedjalkov, A.; Meyer, J.; Gräfenstein, A.; Schramm, B.; Angelmahr, M.; Schwenzel, J.; Schade, W.

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Fulltext ()

Batteries 5 (2019), No.1, Art. 30, 20 pp.
ISSN: 2313-0105
English
Journal Article, Electronic Publication
Fraunhofer HHI ()
Fraunhofer IFAM ()

Abstract
In this scientific publication, a new sensor approach for status monitoring, such as state of charge and state of health, of lithium ion batteries by using special Bragg gratings inscribed into standard optical glass fibers is presented. In addition to well-known core gratings, embedded into the anode of 5 Ah lithium ion pouch cells as a strain monitoring unit, the manufacturing of a surface cladding waveguide Bragg grating sensor incorporated into the cell’s separator, that is sensitive to changes of the refractive index of the surrounding medium, is demonstrated. On the basis of the experiments carried out, characteristics of the cell behavior during standard cyclization and recognizable marks in subsequent post-mortem analyses of the cell components are shown. No negative influence on the cell performance due to the integrated sensors have been observed; however, the results show a clear correlation between fading cell capacity and changes of the interior optical signals. Additionally, with the novel photonic sensor, variations in the electrolyte characteristics are determinable as the refractive index of the solution changes at different molar compositions. Furthermore, with the manufactured battery cells, abuse tests by overcharging were conducted, and it was thereby demonstrated how internal battery sensors can derive additional information beyond conventional battery management systems to feasibly prevent catastrophic cell failures. The result of the research work is an early stage photonic sensor that combines chemical, mechanical and thermal information from inside the cell for an enhanced battery status analysis.

: http://publica.fraunhofer.de/documents/N-630520.html