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Prediction of optimum process parameters fabricated by direct laser interference patterning based on central composite design

: El-Khoury, Mikhael; Voisiat, Bogdan; Kunze, Tim; Lasagni, Andrés-Fabián

Fulltext ()

Materials 13 (2020), No.18, Art. 4101, 20 pp.
ISSN: 1996-1944
European Commission EC
H2020; 768701; SHARK
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft DFG
Reinhart-Koselleck-Projekt; 323477257
Journal Article, Electronic Publication
Fraunhofer IWS ()
nanosecond laser; bearing steel; micro structuring; surface texture homogeneity; morphological filtering; Central Composite Design; design of experiments; direct laser interference patterning

In this study, we report on the optimization of the direct laser interference patterning process by applying the design of experiments approach. The periodic line-like microstructures of a 8.50 µm spatial period were fabricated by a two-beam interference setup with nanosecond laser pulses, varying laser fluence, pulse overlap, and hatch distance. Central composite design with three factors and five levels was implemented to optimize the required number of experiments. The experimental and numerical results show the impact of various structuring process parameters on surface uniformity. The responses measured are the structure height, height error, and waviness of the pattern. An analysis of the microstructures on the patterned surface was conducted by confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. A 3D-characterization method based on morphological filtering, which allows a holistic view of the surface properties, was applied, and a new qualification scheme for surface microstructures was introduced. Empirical models were also developed and validated for establishing relationships between process parameters and performance criteria. Multi-objective optimization was performed to achieve a minimal value of structure height errors and waviness.