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Cultivation of hMSCs in Human Plasma Prevents the Cytotoxic and Genotoxic Potential of ZnO-NP In Vitro

: Scherzad, Agmal; Meyer, Till, J.; Ickrath, Pascal; Gehrke, Thomas; Bregenzer, Maximillian; Hagen, Rudolf; Dembski, Sofia; Hackenberg, Stephan

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Applied Sciences 9 (2019), No.23, Art. 4994, 11 pp.
ISSN: 2076-3417
Journal Article, Electronic Publication
Fraunhofer ISC ()
cytotoxicity; genotoxicity; human plasma; mesenchymal stem cells; ZnO-NP

Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) are commonly used for industrial applications. Consequently, there is increasing exposure of humans to them. The in vitro analysis of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity is commonly performed under standard cell culture conditions. Thus, the question arises of how the results of genotoxicity and cytotoxicity experiments would alter if human plasma was used instead of cell culture medium containing of fetal calf serum (FCS). Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were cultured in human plasma and exposed to ZnO-NPs. A cultivation in expansion medium made of DMEM consisting 10% FCS (DMEM-EM) served as control. Genotoxic and cytotoxic effects were evaluated with the comet and MTT assay, respectively. hMSC differentiation capacity and ZnO-NP disposition were evaluated by histology and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The protein concentration and the amount of soluble Zn2+ were measured. The cultivation of hMSCs in plasma leads to an attenuation of genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of ZnO-NPs compared to control. The differentiation capacity of hMSCs was not altered. The TEM showed ZnO-NP persistence in cytoplasm in both groups. The concentrations of protein and Zn2+ were higher in plasma than in DMEM-EM. In conclusion, the cultivation of hMSCs in plasma compared to DMEM-EM leads to an attenuation of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in vitro.