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Distributed model predictive control strategies for coordination of electro-thermal devices in a cooperative energy management concept

: Stoyanova, I.; Gümrükcü, E.; Aragon, G.; Hidalgo-Rodriguez, D.I.; Monti, A.; Myrzik, J.


Optimal control, applications & methods 41 (2020), No.1, pp.170-189
ISSN: 0143-2087
ISSN: 1099-1514
Journal Article
Fraunhofer FIT ()

This work discusses three promising strategies for the compensation of deviations within the online phase of a cooperative energy management concept. Whereas in the planning phase, hourly schedules for the active electro‐thermal devices are negotiated on a daily basis, the second phase tracks the schedule, including forecast updates, and compensates the deviations. The latter online compensation is realized with a distributed and hierarchical‐distributed model predictive control strategies, which are compared with continuous rescheduling with receding horizon and evaluated in terms of computational and optimization performance and scalability. The optimization is implemented and deployed using an open‐source optimization framework, which automatically manages optimization control, integration of renewable generation and load forecasts, multi‐instantiation and communication over an internet of things communication protocol. We address the case of significant deviations from the day‐ahead forecast and the tracking of an obsolete schedule and suggest a combined method, which combines the advantages of rescheduling and a distributed MPC strategy. The method applies a dynamic threshold to evaluate the deviation trend over time and to decide if compensation is still feasible or if a rescheduling should be triggered. The methods are evaluated based on several performance indicators such as residual deviation, number of switching events and computation and communication requirements and scalability, and offer a methodology for the control design of systems of different dimensions.