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Phenomena in multi-material fabrication using laser metal deposition

: Brückner, Frank; Schab, Johannes C.; Marquardt, Franz; Müller, Michael; Riede, Mirko; Seidel, André; Lopez, Elena; Leyens, Christoph


Gu, Bo (Ed.) ; Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers -SPIE-, Bellingham/Wash.:
Laser 3D Manufacturing VI : 2-7 February 2019, San Francisco, California, United States
Bellingham, WA: SPIE, 2019 (Proceedings of SPIE 10909)
Paper 109090H, 11 pp.
Conference "Laser 3D Manufacturing" <6, 2019, San Francisco/Calif.>
Conference Paper
Fraunhofer IWS ()

Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes as Laser Metal Deposition (LMD) addresses various benefits such as the build-up of complex shaped parts, the possibility of functional integration, reduced lead times or the use of difficult machinable materials compared to conventional manufacturing possibilities. Beside mentioned advantages, the use of more than one material in a component strongly increases the field of applications. Similar to structures in nature, multi-material arrangements can be realized by (I) sharp intersections from one material to the other (e. g. in the case of a thin corrosion protection), (II) graded structures enabling smoother material transitions (e. g. dissimilar materials joined together without defects), (III) composite structures with enclosed particles in a matrix material as well as by (IV) in-situ alloying of different material compositions. Due to varying material properties (e.g. thermo-physical, mechanical, optical), the combination of materials often requires a detailed investigation of occurring process phenomena and well-chosen modifications of the process regimes. Within this paper, (a) the right material feeding as well as powder interaction between various materials in Laser Metal Deposition, (b) the suitable selection of laser wavelengths for different materials, (c) process window adjustments by means of additional sensor equipment, (d) limitations of material combinations as well as (e) results and material characterization of multi-material parts are discussed. Phenomena are discussed by means of exemplary industrial applications, e.g. from the jet engine or medical business.