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Analysis of melt pool characteristics and process parameters using a coaxial monitoring system during directed energy deposition in additive manufacturing

: Kledwig, Christian; Perfahl, Holger; Reisacher, Martin; Brückner, Frank; Bliedtner, Jens; Leyens, Christoph

Fulltext ()

Materials 12 (2019), No.2, Art. 308, 11 pp.
ISSN: 1996-1944
Journal Article, Electronic Publication
Fraunhofer IWS ()
directed energy deposition; laser metal deposition; laser cladding; process parameter; melt pool; coaxial monitoring; process monitoring

The growing number of commercially available machines for laser deposition welding show the growing acceptance and importance of this technology for industrial applications. Their increasing usage in research and production requires process stability and user-friendly handling. A commercially available DMG MORI LT 65 3D hybrid machine used in combination with a CCD-based coaxial temperature measurement system was utilized in this work to investigate what information relating to the intensity distribution of melt pool surfaces could be appropriate to draw conclusions about process conditions. In this study it is shown how the minimal required specific energy for a stable process can be determined, and it is indicated that the evolution of a plasma plume depends on thermal energy within the base material. An estimated melt pool area-calculated by the number of pixels (NOP) with intensities larger than a fixed, predefined threshold-builds the main measure in analysing images from the process camera. The melt pool area and its temporal variance can also serve as an indicator for an increased working distance.