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Applications of photoluminescence imaging to dopant and carrier concentration measurements of silicon wafers

: Lim, S.Y.; Forster, M.; Zhang, X.; Holtkamp, J.; Schubert, M.C.; Cuevas, A.; MacDonald, D.


IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics 3 (2013), No.2, pp.649-655
ISSN: 2156-3381
Journal Article
Fraunhofer ISE ()
Solarzellen - Entwicklung und Charakterisierung; Silicium-Photovoltaik; Charakterisierung von Prozess- und Silicium-Materialien; Charakterisierung; Zellen und Module; Imaging; Control and development of Measuremetn Technology

Photoluminescence-based imaging is most commonly used to measure the excess minority carrier density and its corresponding lifetime. By using appropriate surface treatments, this high-resolution imaging technique can also be used for majority carrier concentration determination. The mechanism involves effectively pinning the minority excess carrier density, resulting in a dependence of the photoluminescence intensity on only the majority carrier density. Three suitable surface preparation methods are introduced in this paper: aluminum sputtering, deionized water etching, and mechanical abrasion. Spatially resolved dopant density images determined using this technique are consistent with the images obtained by a well-established technique based on free carrier infrared emission. Three applications of the technique are also presented in this paper, which include imaging of oxygen-related thermal donors, radial dopant density analysis, and the study of donor-related recomb ination active defects. These applications demonstrate the usefulness of the technique in characterizing silicon materials for photovoltaics.