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Laser joining of glass with silicon

: Witte, R.; Herfurth, H.; Heinemann, S.


Sugioka, K. ; Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers -SPIE-, Bellingham/Wash.:
Photon Processing in Microelectronics and Photonics : 21 - 24 January 2002, San Jose, USA
Bellingham/Wash.: SPIE, 2002 (SPIE Proceedings Series 4637)
ISBN: 0-8194-4376-X
Conference "Photon Processing in Microelectronics and Photonics" <2002, San Jose/Calif.>
Conference Paper
Fraunhofer ILT ()
glass-silicon laser joining; microsystem material; miniaturized device joining; laser beam focusing; localized joining; minimal component heat input; material property; laser weld; process control; hermetic sealing; glass to silicon bond; opto-electronic components; laser source; sensor; switch; multiplexer; adhesive; direct bonding technique; anodic bonding technique; bond strength; bond repeatability; diode laser; fiber beam delivery; sandwiched glass- silicon structure; laser beam penetration; laser beam absorption; clean environment; residue free bonded part; contamination free bonded part; process parameter window; telecommunication application; biomedical device application; MEMS application; encapsulation; packaging; process selectivity; selective bonding; Si

New joining techniques are required for the variety of materials used in the manufacture of microsystems. Lasers are emerging as a useful tool for joining miniaturized devices. The beam can be focused to <0.001", allowing localized joining of very small geometries. There is minimal heat input into the part so distortion and change in material properties is minimal. The high quality of the laser welds and precise process control enable hermetic sealing. Glass to silicon bonds are required in a vast array of opto-electronic components, including laser sources, sensors, switches and multiplexers. Typically, adhesives and direct and anodic bonding techniques are used to join the different materials. Laser bonding is a promising alternative due to the increased bond strength and high repeatability. Compact and efficient diode lasers equipped with fiber beam delivery in the power range of <50 W are applied to the sandwiched glass-silicon structure. During bonding, the laser beam penetrates the upper part and is absorbed at the surface of the bottom part. A clean environment and good part fit is required to ensure proper bonding, high bond strength, and hermetic sealing. The process eliminates adhesives; therefore reducing costs due to shorter cycle times, lower maintenance and less inventory, requires no handling of toxic liquids and creates no fumes. Furthermore, the bonded parts are free of any residue or contamination, reducing scrap rates. This study investigates the process parameter window and determines the impact on the parts and the stability of the process. The results will lead to the development of several applications in the telecommunications, biomedical devices and MEMS areas. This includes MEMS encapsulation, the covering of sensors and biomedical product packaging. The process selectivity is demonstrated on flat coupons.