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D6 Report on Changes in the European Economy. Scientific Report

Results of Work Package 2 (Task 2.3) of the HySociety Project. DG Energy and Transport Contract No. NNE5-2001-641
 
: Wietschel, Martin; Hasenauer, Ulrike
: European Hydrogen Society -HySociety-; Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa -UTL-, Instituto Superior Tecnico -IST-; Fraunhofer-Institut für Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung -ISI-, Karlsruhe

:
Volltext urn:nbn:de:0011-n-336290 (1.5 MByte PDF)
MD5 Fingerprint: 7664b19c97d6c82762fa5cb686738943
Erstellt am: 12.2.2008


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Karlsruhe: Fraunhofer ISI, 2004, 96 S.
 
Englisch
Bericht, Elektronische Publikation
Fraunhofer ISI ()

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Contents S.I-X
1 Executive Summary S.1-5
2 Analysis of Potential EU and Global Market for H2 Technologies S.6-19
- 2.1 Portable applications market S.6-9
- 2.2 Buses market S.10-11
- 2.3 Automotive market S.11-13
- 2.4 Large stationary applications market S.13-14
- 2.5 Small stationary applications market S.14-15
- 2.6 Niche transport market S.16
- 2.7 Auxiliary Power Units market S.16
- 2.8 Military applications market S.16-17
- 2.9 Summary S.17-18
- 2.10 References Chapter 2 S.18-19
3 Impacts on the Global European Economy due to Hydrogen S.20-28
- 3.1 Introduction S.20
- 3.2 Outcome of two German input-output studies S.20-25
- 3.2.1 Structural change in the automotive supplier structure S.20-21
- 3.2.2 Assumption for FC car production in Germany S.22
- 3.2.3 Import assumptions of the industry sectors S.22-23
- 3.2.4 Direct and indirect employments effects in Germany S.23-24
- 3.2.5 Influence of the lead market on employment S.24-25
- 3.3 Sectoral and employment effects due hydrogen in the EU S.25-27
- 3.3.1 Possible sectoral effects S.25-26
- 3.3.1.1 Expected direct effects S.25-26
- 3.3.1.2 Expected indirect effects S.26
- 3.3.2 Lead market S.26
- 3.3.3 Possible employment effects S.26-27
- 3.4 Summary S.27
- 3.5 References Chapter 3 S.28
4 Financing Requirements of a Hydrogen Infrastructure S.29-96
- 4.1 General views on financing the infrastructure investment S.29-31
- 4.2 Comparing the hydrogen distribution infrastructure to other infrastructures (currently in a build-up phase) S.31-33
- 4.2.1 Comparing the attractiveness to investors S.31-33
- 4.3 Comparing the magnitude of the investment S.33-96
- 4.4.1 Europe: the HyNET Roadmap S.35-36
- 4.4.2 U.S. Roadmap S.37-38
- 4.4.3 Roadmap by Shell Hydrogen S.39-96
- 4.5 Oil companies' view's on hydrogen S.40-42
- 4.6 Scale of investments in oil companies S.42
- 4.7 Thoughts on how to improve the attractiveness of hydrogen infrastructure as a target for investments S.43-44
- 4.7.1 Lessons-learned-elsewhere S.43-44
- 4.8 Summary S.44-96
- 5.1 General S.46
- 5.2 Fuel cells technological status S.46-50
- 5.2.1 Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) S.47
- 5.2.4 Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) S.47
- 5.2.5 Alkaline Fuel Cell (AFC) S.48
- 5.2.6 Fuel cells for stationary applications S.48-50
- 5.3 State of the art on stationary applications and remarks S.50-51
- 5.4 Internal combustion engines S.51-52
- 5.5 Micro gas turbines S.52-63
- 5.5.1 Cost of electricity as a function of investment cost S.58-60
- 5.5.2 Cost of electricity as a function of fuel cost S.60-63
- 5.6 CO2 emissions reduction for the stationary sector S.63-64
- 5.7 Conclusions S.64
- 5.8 Summary S.64-65
- 5.9 References Chapter 5 S.65
- 5.10 Appendix Chapter 5: Examples of different cost calculations S.66-96
- Discussion of Opportunities for EU Industry S.68-80
- 6.1 Summary S.68-69
- 6.2 Production of hydrogen S.69-70
- 6.2.2 Hydrogen from heavy hydrocarbons S.69
- 6.2.4 Hydrogen from electricity S.70
- 6.2.5 Future methods of producing hydrogen S.70
- 6.3 Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats for European industry regarding production of hydrogen S.70-72
- 6.4.2 Liquid hydrogen S.72
- 6.4.3 Hydrogen carriers S.72
- 6.5 Transmission and distribution S.73-80
- 6.5.2 Liquid hydrogen S.73
- 6.5.3 Hydrogen carriers S.73-80
- 6.7 Equipment manufacturing, fuel cells S.74-80
- 6.9 End-use S.76-77
- 6.10 Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats for European industry regarding end use of hydrogen S.77-78
- 6.11 Conclusions S.78-80
- Analysis of Improvement on Security of Supply S.81-96
- 7.1 Introduction S.81-82
- 7.1.1 The EU strategy S.81
- 7.1.2 The role of hydrogen S.81-82
- 7.2 EU energy dependence from imports S.82-87
- 7.2.1 The current situation S.82
- 7.2.2 Projections to 2030 S.82-84
- 7.2.3 The transport sector S.84-85
- 7.2.4 The domestic sector S.85-86
- 7.2.5 Electricity generation S.86-87
- 7.3 EU strategy for the security of energy supply S.87-88
- 7.4 Economic effects of supply insecurity S.88-91
- 7.4.1 Definition of energy supply insecurity S.88
- 7.4.2 Economic aspects of energy supply insecurity S.88-89
- 7.4.3 Damage arising from energy supply disruption S.89-90
- 7.4.4 Calculation of damage costs S.90-91
- 7.5 The role of hydrogen in improving energy supply security S.91-94
- 7.5.1 Favourable characteristics of hydrogen as a fuel with regards to energy supply security S.91
- 7.5.2 HySociety scenario for hydrogen introduction in the EU S.91-93
- 7.5.3 Effects of hydrogen introduction on demand of primary energy sources S.93-94
- 7.6 Conclusions S.94-95
- 7.7 Summary S.95-96
- 7.8 References Chapter 7 S.96