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Direct Contact Electroplating Sequence without Initial Seed Layer for Bifacial TOPCon Solar Cell Metallization

: Grübel, B.; Cimiotti, G.; Schmiga, C.; Arya, V.; Steinhauser, B.; Bay, N.; Passig, M.; Brunner, D.; Glatthaar, M.; Kluska, S.

Volltext urn:nbn:de:0011-n-6354677 (2.4 MByte PDF)
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Erstellt am: 6.8.2021

IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics 11 (2021), Nr.3, S.584-590
ISSN: 2156-3381
ISSN: 2156-3403
Zeitschriftenaufsatz, Elektronische Publikation
Fraunhofer ISE ()
Photovoltaik; Passivating contacts; photovoltaics; Plating; silicon solar cell; solar cell metallization; TOPCon; Silicium-Photovoltaik; Metallisierung und Strukturierung

The metallization of bifacial tunneling oxide and passivating contacts (TOPCon) solar cells without initial metal seed layer by electroplating of Ni/Cu/Ag is demonstrated. The presented approach allows a lead-free metallization with narrow contact geometries and low contact resistivity. A metal plate provides electrical contact to the silicon via micrometer size laser contact openings and allows electroplating of bifacial TOPCon solar cells using industrial type inline plating tools without the need of a previously applied seed layer. Challenges such as direct contacting of silicon and dissolution of contacts are identified, and potential solutions are discussed. An optimized process sequence is developed and with this approach a solar cell efficiency of 22.5% is demonstrated on industrial bifacial TOPCon solar cells reaching the same level as the screen-printed reference solar cells.