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Degradation of pesticides in soil - comparison of laboratory experiments in a biometer system and outdoor lysimeter experiments

: Rüdel, H.; Schmidt, S.; Kördel, W.; Klein, W.


Science of the Total Environment 132 (1993), S.181-200
ISSN: 0048-9697
Fraunhofer IUCT ( IME) ()
biometer system; DT50; lysimeter; pesticide; soil degradation

This study elucidates the environmental significance of standard laboratory experiments for pesticide degradability in soil. Simazine, chlortoluron and phthalic acid bis-(2-ethylhexyl) ester (plasticizer, formulation additive) were used as model substances. Standard metabolism experiments with high14C-labelled substances were performed in a biometer system with smaller than 2 mm-soil fractions (silty sand and silty loam, respectively) at constant soil moisture and 20 degree C. Another set of samples was incubated under simulated outdoor conditions (alternating temperature and soil moisture, smaller than 4 mm-soil fraction). Outdoor experiments were conducted with non-labelled substances in small lysimeters of 20 cm diameter. In five of six parallel biometer experiments, DTsub50 values (half-lives) under simulated outdoor conditions were up to 2.5 times longer than in standard experiments. This is probably due to the lower average temperature under simulated outdoor conditions as compar ed with standard conditions. In all experiments, non-extractable residues were lower under simulated outdoor than under standard conditions. Comparison of DTsub50 values from biometer tests under simulated outdoor conditions to those of fallow lysimeter experiments revealed shorter DTsub50 values outdoors. Only for chlortoluron, the DTsub50 outdoors was 1.5 times longer than under simulated outdoor conditions. DTsub50 values determined in standard experiments gave better estimates of the disappearance of the investigated substances in fallow lysimeters.