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How Germany proceeds to reach its 25-30% Co2-reduction target (compared to 1987) in 2005

Paper presented at the Demetra Foundation Conference "Climate Variability and Global Change", 28. October - 1. November 1991, Chianciano Terme, Italy
: Walz, R.
: Fraunhofer-Institut für Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung -ISI-, Karlsruhe

Volltext urn:nbn:de:0011-px-492190 (2.4 MByte PDF)
MD5 Fingerprint: aaf5868c5d90404f89f8cb51cc0672e2
Erstellt am: 26.4.2013

Karlsruhe: ISI, 1991, 15 S.
Bericht, Elektronische Publikation
Fraunhofer ISI ()
CO2-Minderung; CO2-reduction; energiebewußtes Verhalten; Energieeffizienz; Energieeinsparpolitik; Energieeinsparung; Energiepolitik; energy conscious behaviour; energy conservation; energy conservation policy; energy efficiency; energy policy

The paper describes the German plan to reduce C02 emissions by 25-30% up to the year 2005. The analysis of the technical potential to reduce energy consumption by improved energy efficiency leads to the conclusion that an overall 35% to 45% improvement in energy efficiency would be feasible. The demand for energy can be further reduced by decreasing the level of energy services used. Other options are an increased use of renewable energy, inter-fossil fuel substitution and nuclear energy. Different scenarios demonstrate that priority has to be given to energy conservation and an increased use of renewable energy. The net costs of this scenarios are calculated at 1.5 to 5 billion dollar per year. The policy options to reach the reduction target can be characterized as economic instruments (e.g. taxes), and sectoral measures, e.g. regulation, financial incentives, laws/standards and information programs. An analysis of the measures already adopted or prepared shows a low level of financi al incentives. On the other hand the number of economic instruments is increasing. Standards seem to play a very important role. A shortcoming is the relatively low level of information and motivation measures.