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A new approach to detect and size closed cracks by ultrasonics

: Saka, M.; Höller, P.; Schneider, E.

Research in Nondestructive Evaluation 1 (1989), S.65-75
ISSN: 0934-9847
ISSN: 1432-2110
Fraunhofer IZFP ()
closed crack; crack plastic zone; fatigue crack; linearly polarized shear wave; loading history; time-of-flight

The effect of a crack on time-flight of shear waves (4.5 MHz) polarized in perpendicular (t) and parallel (t) directions to the crack surface, propagating parallel to the direction of crack growth is investigated. The first and second back-wall echoes are used instead of the weak crack-tip echo for the measurement of time-of-flight. The measurement is made for fatigue cracks grown by different loading histories in ferritic steel (pressure vessel steel A533B-1) under the condition of no loading. The normalized time-of-flight (t-t)/t at the crack position is found to change proportionally as the ratio of crack to specimen width increases. The change is mainly due to the effect of plastic deformation occurring around the crack on t. It is shown that the depth of tightly closed fatigue crack in austenitic stainless steel (AISI 304) also can be evaluated under the condition of no loading by using this relationship.