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International heat pump status and policy review. National position paper Germany

: Reichert, J.; Mannsbart, W.

International Energy Agency -IEA-, Heat Pump Centre, Paris; Fraunhofer-Institut für Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung -ISI-, Karlsruhe:
International heat pump status and policy review. Part 2A - national position papers
Karlsruhe, 1994
S.1-23 (paper 6)
Aufsatz in Buch
Fraunhofer ISI ()
Austria; Belgium; building; Canada; demonstration program; Denmark; energy policy; environmental policy; France; Federal Republic of Germany; Greece; heat pump; industry; international cooperation; Italy; market; marketing; Netherlands; Norway; performance; research program; review; Spain; Sweden; Switzerland; United Kingdom; USA; working fluid; cooperation; developed country; developing country; document type; Europe; Fluid; government policy; north america; Scandinavia; Western Europe

Among the technology options for improving energy efficiency, heat pumps are commanding considerable attention. By using thermal energy resources such as natural or waste heat at low-temperatures, heat pumps can meet heating and cooling needs in buildings and industry with minimal consumption of primary energy. To make an objective judgement on the heat pump option, it is prudent to look at worldwide experience. An extensive survey carried out by the IEA Heat Pump Centre and the International Institute of Refrigeration has examined the situation in a cross-section of countries. This report presents and discusses the results of this survey, to provide an insight into the current significance and potential of the heat pump option. From basic factors such as energy prices and climate, to trends in heat pump performance, the parameters which influence heat pump markets, are examined. With a compilation of the number of heat pumps installed in recent years, and a review of international, national and utility policy measures, this report sets the scene for the future use of heat pumps. Volume 1 analyzes the main data from sixteen countries. Volume 2A contains detailed reports on these countries, while Volume 2B comprises similar reports on some additional countries.