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Material development for dye solar modules: Results from an integrated approach

: Hinsch, A.; Behrens, S.; Berginc, M.; Bönnemann, H.; Brandt, H.; Drewitz, A.; Einsele, F.; Faßler, D.; Gerhard, D.; Gores, H.; Haag, R.; Herzig, T.; Himmler, S.; Khelashvili, G.; Koch, D.; Nazmutdinova, G.; Opara Krasovec, U.; Putyra, P.; Rau, U.; Sastrawan, R.; Schauer, T.; Schreiner, C.; Sensfuss, S.; Siegers, C.; Skupien, K.; Wachter, P.; Walter, J.; Wasserscheid, P.; Würfel, U.; Zistler, M.


Progress in Photovoltaics 16 (2008), Nr.6, S.489-501
ISSN: 1062-7995
Fraunhofer ISE ()

In this paper, we report on tire outcome of a German network project conducted with 12 partners from universities and research institutes on the material development of dye solar cells (DSC). We give an overview in the field and evaluate the concept of monolithic DSC further with respect to upscaling and producibility oil glass substrates. We have developed a manufacturing process for monolithic DSC modules which is entirely based on screen printing. Similar to our previous experience gained in the sealing of standard DSC, the encapsulation of the modules is achieved in a fusing step by soldering of glass frit layers. For use in monolithic DSC, a platinum free, conductive counter electrode layer, showing a charge transfer resistance of R-CT<1.5 Omega cm(2), has been realized by firing a graphite/carbon black composite under an inert atmosphere. Glass frit sealed monolithic test cells have been prepared using this platinum free material. A solar efficiency of 6% on a 2.0 cm(2) active cell area has been achieved in this case. Various types of non-volatile imidazolium-based binary ionic liquid electrolytes have been synthesized and optimized with respect to diffusion-limited currents and charge transfer resistances in DSC. In addition, quasi-solid-state electrolytes have been successfully tested by applying inorganic (SiO2) physical gelators. For the use in semi-transparent DSC modules, a polyol process has been developed which resulted in tire preparation of screen printed transparent catalytic platinum layers showing an extremely low charge transfer resistance (0-25 Omega cm(2)).