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Transmission physics and consequences for materials selection, manufacturing, and applications

: Krell, A.; Hutzler, T.; Klimke, J.


Journal of the European Ceramic Society 29 (2009), Nr.2, S.207-221
ISSN: 0955-2219
Fraunhofer IKTS ()
transparent ceramic; translucent ceramic; light transmission; defect-free processing; alumina Al2O3; spinel MgO.Al2O3; AlON; yttria Y2O3; garnet YAG; zirconia ZrO2; lighting; IR-emitter; laser ceramic; lens; microlithography; tool; dental ceramic; gemstone; armour

The differences of translucency and transparency request special conditions for a right photographic presentation and for correct transmission measurements. These differences also influence the materials design of products because of the effect of thickness. Prerequisites of a clear transparency of ceramics are derived for inherent materials properties and for the microstructures starting from a comparison of amorphous, single crystalline and sintered polycrystalline transparent materials. Manufacturing principles differ for transparent cubic and non-cubic ceramics; they have to respond to frequently extreme microstructural requirements, to the available basis of raw materials, and to individual shape, size, and property objectives of applications. A range of present and future applications is addressed and evaluated as governed by, on the one hand, a sensible balance of stringent needs in different fields of the industry with, on the other hand, the costs of development and manufacture.