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Dynamics in biotechnology policy-making in Europe in the period 1994-2006

: Enzing, C.; Giessen, A. van der; Molen, S. van der; Lindner, R.; Senker, J.


International journal of biotechnology 10 (2008), Nr.4, S.283-302
ISSN: 0963-6048
Fraunhofer ISI ()
biotechnology; policy-making; policy instrument; EU member state; national system of innovation; market and system failure

This article analyses the dynamics in national biotechnology policy-making in the 15 old EU member states and three associated European countries (Iceland, Norway and Switzerland) in the period from 1994-2006. It uses two data sets on national biotechnology policy instruments; the first covers the period from 1994-1998 and the second, the period from 2002-2005. The article analyses the changes in the first and second-generation policies and policy instruments that support biotechnology from a national systems perspective and assesses the changes in terms of market and systems failures. Analysis shows that first-generation policies (supporting basic and applied research) have kept their top position. Strong dynamics were found in second-generation policies encouraging technology transfer and commercialisation. A major trend in 2002-2005 was the increased regional government participation in biotechnology policy-making.