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Carbide formation in copper-carbon composites and its effect on thermal conductivity

Carbidbildung in Kupfer-Kohlenstoff-Verbundwerkstoffen und ihr Einfluss auf die Wärmeleitfähigkeit
: Schubert, T.; Weidmueller, H.; Weißgärber, T.; Kieback, B.

Engquist, J. ; Metal Powder Industries Federation -MPIF-, Princeton/N.J.; American Powder Metallurgy Institute, Princeton/N.J.:
Advances in powder metallurgy & particulate materials - 2007. Vol. 2 : Proceedings of the 2007 International Conference on Powder Metallurgy & Particulate Materials, PowderMet 2007. May 13 - 16, Denver, Colorado
Princeton: MPIF, 2007
ISBN: 0-9793488-5-4
ISBN: 978-0-9793488-5-3
International Conference on Powder Metallurgy & Particulate Materials (PowderMet) <2007, Denver/Colo.>
Fraunhofer IFAM, Institutsteil Pulvermetallurgie und Verbundwerkstoffe Dresden ()
Wärmeleitfähigkeit; Metallmatrixverbundwerkstoff; Kupferchromlegierung; Graphit; Diamant; Gehalt=Zusammensetzung; Pulvermetallurgie; Korngröße; Grenzflächenreaktion; Grenzschicht; Carbid; Heißpressen; Thermischer Ausdehnungskoeffizient; Anisotropie; Modellsimulation; Theorie-Experiment-Vergleich

During the past decades, the rapid evolution of integration technology has resulted in a significant increase in electronic device density and speed, and such a rate of increase is expected to continue for the near future. With such progress there arise problems with heat generation on the semiconductor chips. To achieve long life and reliable performance of these components, it is necessary to keep the operating temperature of the electronic device within specified limits. Therefore, the effective thermal management is a key issue for packaging of high performance semiconductors. The ideal material working as heat sink and heat spreader should have a low and tailorable CTE (coefficient of thermal expansion) and highest possible thermal conductivity. MMCs (metal matrix composites) offer the possibility to tailor the thermal properties of a highly conductive metal by adding an appropriate reinforcement phase. To meet the market demands in thermal management materials copper/natural graphite and copper/diamond composites have been produced by powder metallurgy. The produced composites exhibit thermal conductivities in the range of 400 W/mK to 600 W/mK combined with a reduced thermal expansion. The thermo-physical properties will be displayed and discussed as a function of the reinforcements as well as the interfacial design. It was revealed, that a carbide formation can promote the interfacial bonding between diamond and copper, and therefore improves the bulk thermal properties of these composites. The most promising copper/graphite composite represents a thermal conductivity of 560 W/mK in combination with a low CTE of 7-8 x 10(exp -6)/K according to the homogeneous graphite flake distribution in the pure copper matrix without any carbide forming element. But, a strong anisotropy of the properties in case of the copper-graphite composites must be considered unlike the diamond reinforced copper.
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