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Mechanistic insights into the reversible lithium storage in an open porous carbon via metal cluster formation in all solid-state batteries

: Bloi, Luise Maria; Hippauf, Felix; Boenke, Tim; Rauche, Marcus; Paasch, Silvia; Schutjajew, Konstantin; Pampel, Jonas; Schwotzer, Friedrich; Dörfler, Susanne; Althues, Holger; Oschatz, Martin; Brunner, Eike; Kaskel, Stefan


Carbon 188 (2022), S.325-335
ISSN: 0008-6223
Fraunhofer IWS ()
all solid state battery; microporous carbon; lithium battery; Anode; carbide-derived carbon; Lithium cluster

Porous carbons are promising anode materials for next generation lithium batteries due to their large lithium storage capacities. However, their highsloping capacity during lithiation and delithiation as well as capacity fading due to intense formation of solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) limit their gravimetric and volumetric energy densities. Herein we compare a microporous carbide-derived carbon material (MPC) as promising future anode for all solid-state batteries with a commercial high-performance hard carbon anode. The MPC obtains high and reversible lithiation capacities of 1000 mAh g−1carbon in half-cells exhibiting an extended plateau region near 0 V vs. Li/Li+ preferable for full-cell application. The well-defined microporosity of the MPC with a specific surface area of >1500 m2 g−1 combines well with the argyrodite-type electrolyte (Li6PS5Cl) suppressing extensive SEI formation to deliver high coulombic efficiencies. Preliminary full-cell measurements vs. nickel-rich NMC-cathodes (LiNi0.9Co0.05Mn0.05O2) provide a considerably improved average potential of 3.76 V leading to a projected energy density as high as 449 Wh kg−1 and reversible cycling for more than 60 cycles. 7Li Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy was combined with ex-situ Small Angle X-ray Scattering to elucidate the storage mechanism of lithium inside the carbon matrix. The formation of extended quasi-metallic lithium clusters after electrochemical lithiation was revealed.