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Concept of an automotive LiDAR target simulator for direct time-of-flight LiDAR

: Grollius, Sara; Ligges, Manuel; Ruskowski, Jennifer; Grabmaier, Anton

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IEEE transactions on intelligent vehicles (2021), Online First, 11 S.
ISSN: 2379-8858
ISSN: 2379-8904
Zeitschriftenaufsatz, Elektronische Publikation
Fraunhofer IMS ()
RISC-V; physically unclonable functions (PUF); hardware security; Time-of-Flight (ToF); light detection and ranging (LiDAR) testing; device-under-test (DUT); LiDAR-under-test (LUT); Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL); over-the-air (OTA)

Autonomous driving can make traffic safer by reducing human errors. Different sensor types in autonomous vehicles could introduce additional technical failures. We offer a target simulator testing LiDAR systems under automotive conditions. Therefore, data are projected over-the-air by laser signals on the LiDAR detector. This work presents a concept of a LiDAR target simulator with regards to LiDAR systems using the direct time-of-flight principle. We develope design considerations for a screen discussing undesired screen reflections, a curved screen form and the positioning of light sources on this screen. As one main solution, we introduce a concept of an antireflective screen. For the scenario simulation, we derive a model delivering the required optical power representing a simulated target, which is combined with the simulated time-of-flight. Considering no prior knowledge of the LiDAR system under test, we discuss the required calibration data and timing resolution. Thereby, we suggest an optimized time-of-flight concept requireing only one optical trigger to determine the LiDAR measurement start. All requirements are supported by calculated example parameters based on real LiDAR systems. Altogether, we discuss main challenges and possible solutions of our LiDAR target simulator, which will allow a safer and more efficient development of LiDAR systems.