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Potential of Using Medium Electric Vehicle Fleet in a Commercial Enterprise Transport in Germany on the Basis of Real-World GPS Data

: Pietracho, R.; Wenge, C.; Balischewski, S.; Lombardi, P.; Komarnicki, P.; Kasprzyk, L.; Burzyński, D.

Volltext ()

Energies 14 (2021), Nr.17, Art. 5327, 23 S.
ISSN: 1996-1073
Zeitschriftenaufsatz, Elektronische Publikation
Fraunhofer IFF ()

The intensive electrification of the automotive sector means that the energy system must be able to adapt to the current market situation. The increase in energy demand is a major factor associated with electric vehicles. The study analyzed the operation of a grid-connected facility operating a vehicle fleet providing transport services in the region Halle/Saale, Germany. Measurement data were used in the analysis, including global positioning system data of the vehicles and technical data, including average fuel consumption on a given route section, daily load demand of the industrial facility, and energy generation from photovoltaics. This paper shows the impact of using a battery electric vehicles (BEVs) fleet in the load distribution for the industrial facility considered. The NEDC energy consumption profile for the Nissan e-NV200 were used in this study. Furthermore, the paper presented simulation results allowing one to determine the usage potential, energy demand, and consumption of EVs using real data, reliably representing the processes related to EV daily use. The measurement data were captured using available specialized equipment: Dako-Key (GPS data), PV power generation (Siemens 7KM PAC4200), and load (Janitza UMG 604-Pro) in September, 2018. On this basis, it is possible to identify the effects and variations in load on the power grid during the replacement of combustion vehicle fleets used currently by EVs for the provision of transport services. Three models were presented, making it possible to calculate changes in energy demand for each scenario. In the first model, EVs were charged exclusively from the distribution network. In the second, the energy generation from a renewable source was considered and the possibility of compensating the energy demand of the vehicles from this source was demonstrated. In the third model, the daily load profile and the period of maximum load in the electricity grid were considered. The results are presented in graphical and tabular form. Finally, the potential of using an EV fleet to increase the functionality of a modern industry object was determined and discussed. Based on data for the adopted scenarios, electrification of transport can increase demand for energy by 40.9% for individual enterprises. The electrification of the automotive sector will increase the instantaneous energy demand of businesses, forcing the integration of renewable energy sources during designing new invests.