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Novel ablative laser mediated transdermal immunization for microparticulate measles vaccine

: Joshi, D.; Gala, R.P.; Uddin, M.N.; D'Souza, M.J.


International Journal of Pharmaceutics 606 (2021), Art. 120882
ISSN: 0378-5173
Fraunhofer CCD ()

With the need for safe and efficacious vaccines which could be administered via non-invasive procedure, alternatives to traditional injectables vaccines are sought after. The present study aimed to develop the microparticulate formulation of measles vaccine and explore the feasibility of transdermal delivery via ablative laser mediated skin microporation. Transdermal route offers several advantages including painless immunization and ease of administration. We propose to use P.L.E.A.S.E. ablative laser for transdermal immunization of the microparticulate measles vaccine. This laser emits energy at 2940 µm, enabling cold ablation. This creates the micropores of defined size for delivery of vaccines into the skin. We compared the efficacy of transdermal immunization using the particulate formulation of the vaccine to that of traditional subcutaneous immunization using soluble and particulate vaccine. The microparticles were formulated using the biocompatible and biodegradable bovine serum albumin (BSA)-based polymer matrix. These vaccine microparticles were non-cytotoxic to the antigen presenting cells (APCs) and could effectively stimulate the innate immune response, confirmed by release of nitric oxide (NO) from the Griess’s assay. The APCs when exposed to vaccine microparticles also showed a significantly higher expression of antigen-presenting molecules, MHC I and MHC II, and their co-stimulatory molecules, CD80 and CD40 as compared to the blank microparticles. The microparticulate measles vaccine was evaluated in vivo in the murine model. We compared the serum IgG and IgM levels in the mice receiving the vaccine subcutaneously and transdermally post-immunization. The results revealed that transdermal immunization with microparticulate vaccine is as efficient as the traditional subcutaneous administration.