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Patterns of intracerebral hemorrhage that result in unfavorable outcomes in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage

: Roelz, Roland; Grauvogel, Jürgen; Csok, Istvan; Schaefer, Jan Hendrik; Shah, Mukesch J.; Fung, Christian; Taschner, Christian; Beck, Jürgen; Reinacher, Peter Christoph; Scheiwe, Christian


Clinical neurology and neurosurgery 205 (2021), Art. 106603
ISSN: 0303-8467
ISSN: 1872-6968
Fraunhofer ILT ()
Intracerebral hemorrhage; outcome; subarachnoid hemorrhage

Objective(s). Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) contributes considerably to the high morbidity and mortality of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Specific patterns of aSAH-associated ICH that are not compatible with favorable outcome remain unknown. The main objective of this study is to report patterns of aSAH-associated ICH that result in unfavorable outcomes. Methods. This is a retrospective analysis of 1036 consecutive aSAH patients admitted to an academic neurosurgical center in a 15-year period (01/2005–12/2019). Admission imaging was investigated for presence, location and size of intracerebral hemorrhage. The rates of favorable outcome at 6 months (modified Rankin Scale) relative to ICH location and volume were analyzed to identify patterns of ICH which were incompatible with favorable outcome. Results. 284 of 1036 patients (27.4%) suffered from aSAH-related ICH. The median ICH volume was 14.0 ml. Outcome of patients with ICH < 10 ml was comparable to patients without ICH. ICH volumes > 10 ml were associated with worse outcomes. We identified the fronto-basal brain to tolerate even larger ICH without compromise of neurological outcomes. ICH located in the frontal, fronto-insular, temporo-insular and temporal regions were associated with intermediate prognoses as outcome declined with larger ICH volumes. ICH located in the basal ganglia, cerebellum, corpus callosum and bifrontal ICH were associated with particularly poor outcomes irrespective of ICH volumes. Conclusion. aSAH-associated ICH of the basal ganglia, cerebellum, corpus callosum and bifrontal brain are associated with exceptionally poor outcomes. ICH volume alone is insufficient for prognostic considerations.