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Feature visualization within an automated design assessment leveraging explainable artificial intelligence methods

: Schönhof, Raoul; Werner, Artem; Elstner, Jannes; Zopcsak, Boldizsar; Awad, Ramez; Huber, Marco

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Procedia CIRP 100 (2021), S.331-336
ISSN: 2212-8271
Design Conference <31, 2021, Online>
Zeitschriftenaufsatz, Elektronische Publikation
Fraunhofer IPA ()
Montageautomatisierung; deep learning; NeuroCAD; Explainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI); Künstliche Intelligenz

Not only automation of manufacturing processes but also automation of automation procedures itself become increasingly relevant to automation research. In this context, automated capability assessment, mainly leveraged by deep learning systems driven from 3D CAD data, have been presented. Current assessment systems may be able to assess CAD data with regards to abstract features, e.g. the ability to automatically separate components from bulk goods, or the presence of gripping surfaces. Nevertheless, they suffer from the factor of black box systems, where an assessment can be learned and generated easily, but without any geometrical indicator about the reasons of the system’s decision. By utilizing explainable AI (xAI) methods, we attempt to open up the black box. Explainable AI methods have been used in order to assess whether a neural network has successfully learned a given task or to analyze which features of an input might lead to an adversarial attack. These methods aim to derive additional insights into a neural network, by analyzing patterns from a given input and its impact to the network’s output. Within the NeuroCAD Project, xAI methods are used to identify geometrical features which are associated with a certain abstract feature. Within this work, a sensitivity analysis (SA), the layer-wise relevance propagation (LRP), the Gradient-weighted Class Activation Mapping (Grad-CAM) method as well as the Local Interpretable Model-Agnostic Explanations (LIME) have been implemented in the NeuroCAD environment, allowing not only to assess CAD models but also to identify features which have been relevant for the network’s decision. In the medium run, this might enable to identify regions of interest supporting product designers to optimize their models with regards to assembly processes.