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Sodium solid electrolytes: NaxAlOy bilayer-system based on macroporous bulk material and dense thin-film

: Hoppe, Antonia; Dirksen, Cornelius; Skadell, Karl; Stelter, Michael; Schulz, Matthias; Carstens, Simon; Enke, Dirk; Koppka, Sharon

Volltext ()

Materials 14 (2021), Nr.4, Art. 854, 17 S.
ISSN: 1996-1944
Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung BMBF (Deutschland)
Zeitschriftenaufsatz, Elektronische Publikation
Fraunhofer IKTS ()
Na-β-alumina; sol-gel; Bilayer electrolyte; sodium-ion batteries

A new preparation concept of a partially porous solid-state bilayer electrolyte (BE) for high-temperature sodium-ion batteries has been developed. The porous layer provides mechanical strength and is infiltrated with liquid and highly conductive NaAlCl4 salt, while the dense layer prevents short circuits. Both layers consist, at least partially, of Na-β-alumina. The BEs are synthesized by a three-step procedure, including a sol-gel synthesis, the preparation of porous, calcined bulk material, and spin coating to deposit a dense layer. A detailed study is carried out to investigate the effect of polyethylene oxide (PEO) concentration on pore size and crystallization of the bulk material. The microstructure and crystallographic composition are verified for all steps via mercury intrusion, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. The porous bulk material exhibits an unprecedented open porosity for a NaxAlOy bilayer-system of ≤57% with a pore size of ≈200–300 nm and pore volume of ≤0.3 cm3∙g−1. It contains high shares of crystalline α-Al2O3 and Na-β-alumina. The BEs are characterized by impedance spectroscopy, which proved an increase of ionic conductivity with increasing porosity and increasing Na-β-alumina phase content in the bulk material. Ion conductivity of up to 0.10 S∙cm−1 at 300 °C is achieved.