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Machine learning for anomaly assessment in sensor networks for NDT in aerospace

: Kraljevski, Ivan; Duckhorn, Frank; Tschöpe, Constanze; Wolff, Matthias

Volltext ()

IEEE Sensors Journal 21 (2021), Nr.9, S.11000-11008
ISSN: 1530-437X
ISSN: 1558-1748
Zeitschriftenaufsatz, Elektronische Publikation
Fraunhofer IKTS ()
machine learning; non-destructive testing; ultrasonic transducers

We investigated and compared various algorithms in machine learning for anomaly assessment with different feature analyses on ultrasonic signals recorded by sensor networks. The following methods were used and compared in anomaly detection modeling: hidden Markov models (HMM), support vector machines (SVM), isolation forest (IF), and reconstruction autoencoders (AEC). They were trained exclusively on sensor signals of the intact state of structures commonly used in various industries, like aerospace and automotive. The signals obtained on artificially introduced damage states were used for performance evaluation. Anomaly assessment was evaluated and compared using various classifiers and feature analysis methods. We introduced novel methodologies for two processes. The first was the dataset preparation with anomalies. The second was the detection and damage severity assessment utilizing the intact object state exclusively. The experiments proved that robust anomaly detection is practically feasible. We were able to train accurate classifiers which had a considerable safety margin. Precise quantitative analysis of damage severity will also be possible when calibration data become available during exploitation or by using expert knowledge.