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Hydrogel-based chemical and biochemical sensors

A Review and Tutorial Paper
: Gerlach, Gerald; Günther, Margarita; Härtling, Thomas


IEEE Sensors Journal 21 (2021), Nr.11, S.12798-12807
ISSN: 1530-437X
ISSN: 1558-1748
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft DFG
SPP 1259; Ge 779/14-3
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft DFG
SPP 1259; Ge 779/24-1
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft DFG
SPP 1259; Ge 779/38-1
Fraunhofer IKTS ()
sensors; hydrogels; sensor phenomena and characterization; temperature measurement; time factor; temperature sensors; chemicals; chemical sensors; swelling pressure

Hydrogels are cross-linked polymer networks able to absorb or to release large amounts of water. The water uptake is associated with a considerable volume change but also with changes of optical properties like the refractive index. The swelling can be excited by a large spectrum of different physical (e.g. temperature, electrical voltage, magnetic field) and chemical factors (e.g. pH value, concentrations of chemical or biochemical species). The particular sensitivity can be adjusted by tailoring the composition of the hydrogel or via its functionalization. If the interaction between hydrogel and analyte to be measured is reversible then such hydrogels are becoming a promising candidate for miniaturized, cost-effective and inline-capable sensors.