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Expression, regulation and function of microrna as important players in the transition of MDS to secondary AML and their cross talk to RNA-binding proteins

: Bauer, M.; Vaxevanis, C.; Heimer, N.; Al-Ali, H.K.; Jaekel, N.; Bachmann, M.; Wickenhauser, C.; Seliger, B.

Volltext ()

International journal of molecular sciences 21 (2020), Nr.19, Art. 7140, 30 S.
ISSN: 1422-0067
ISSN: 1661-6596
Zeitschriftenaufsatz, Elektronische Publikation
Fraunhofer IZI ()

Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), heterogeneous diseases of hematopoietic stem cells, exhibit a significant risk of progression to secondary acute myeloid leukemia (sAML) that are typically accompanied by MDS-related changes and therefore significantly differ to de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Within these disorders, the spectrum of cytogenetic alterations and oncogenic mutations, the extent of a predisposing defective osteohematopoietic niche, and the irregularity of the tumor microenvironment is highly diverse. However, the exact underlying pathophysiological mechanisms resulting in hematopoietic failure in patients with MDS and sAML remain elusive. There is recent evidence that the post-transcriptional control of gene expression mediated by microRNAs (miRNAs), long noncoding RNAs, and/or RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are key components in the pathogenic events of both diseases. In addition, an interplay between RBPs and miRNAs has been postulated in MDS and sAML. Although a plethora of miRNAs is aberrantly expressed in MDS and sAML, their expression pattern significantly depends on the cell type and on the molecular make-up of the sample, including chromosomal alterations and single nucleotide polymorphisms, which also reflects their role in disease progression and prediction. Decreased expression levels of miRNAs or RBPs preventing the maturation or inhibiting translation of genes involved in pathogenesis of both diseases were found. Therefore, this review will summarize the current knowledge regarding the heterogeneity of expression, function, and clinical relevance of miRNAs, its link to molecular abnormalities in MDS and sAML with specific focus on the interplay with RBPs, and the current treatment options. This information might improve the use of miRNAs and/or RBPs as prognostic markers and therapeutic targets for both malignancies.