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Incidence and surgical outcomes of patients with native and prosthetic aortic valve endocarditis

: Luehr, M.; Bauernschmitt, N.; Peterss, S.; Li, Y.; Heyn, O.; Dashkevich, A.; Oberbach, A.; Bagaev, E.; Pichlmaier, M.A.; Juchem, G.; Hagl, C.


The annals of thoracic surgery 110 (2020), Nr.1, S.93-101
ISSN: 0003-4975
Fraunhofer IZI ()

The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the incidence and surgical outcomes of patients with native infective endocarditis (IE) and prosthetic aortic valve endocarditis (PVE) over the past decade at a single institution.
Between January 2005 and December 2015, 289 patients (mean age, 63.3 ± 14.2 years) suffering from native IE (n = 186) and PVE (n = 103) of the aortic valve underwent surgical procedures. Perioperative data were acquired retrospectively for statistical analysis.
During the study period the mean incidence of endocarditis increased from 22.0 ± 4.2 (2005-2009) to 29.8 ± 10.1 (2010-2015) cases per year. In-hospital mortality was significantly increased in PVE (22.3%) versus IE (9.1%) patients (P < .001). In elective cases in-hospital mortality between the 2 groups was comparable (2.2% vs 4.6%; P = .288). Multivariate analysis identified urgent surgery (odds ratio [OR], 6.461; 95% CI, 1.941-21.509; P = .002), mitral regurgitation II (OR, 4.230; 95% CI, 1.249-14.331; P = .021), previous homograft operation (OR, 66.096; 95% CI, 2.369-1844.272; P = .0.14), and left ventricular ejection fraction < 40% (OR, 8.267; 95% CI, 1.931-35.388; P = .004) as independent risk factors for in-hospital mortality, whereas pathogen identification by preoperative blood cultures (OR, .228; 95% CI, 0.063-0.817; P = .023) was found to be independently protective.
Surgery for native IE and PVE of the aortic valve may be performed with satisfactorily results at experienced cardiac surgical centers. In comparison PVE patients suffer from a more than twice as high in-hospital mortality, more postoperative complications, and inferior long-term survival. However preoperative identification of causative pathogens in IE and PVE allows for improved in-hospital survival.