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Reliability issues in Pb-free solder joint miniaturization

: Huang, Z.; Conway, P.P.; Jung, E.; Thomson, R.C.; Liu, C.; Loeher, T.; Minkus, M.


Journal of Electronic Materials 35 (2006), Nr.9, S.1761-1772
ISSN: 0361-5235
ISSN: 1543-186X
Fraunhofer IZM ()

As solder joints become increasingly miniaturized to meet the severe demands of future electronic packaging, it is vitally important to consider whether the solder joint size and geometry could become reliability issues and thereby affect implementation of the Pb-free solders. In this study, three bumping techniques, i.e., solder dipping, stencil printing followed by solder reflow, and electroplating of solders with subsequent reflow, were used to investigate the interfacial interactions of molten Sn-3.5Ag, Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu, and pure Sn solders on a copper pad at 240 degrees C. The resultant interfacial microstructures, coming from a variety of Cu pads, with sizes ranging from I mm to 25 mu m, and representing different solder bump geometries, have been investigated. In addition, a two-dimensional thermodynamic/kinetic model has been developed to assist the understanding of the kinetics of interdiffusion and the formation of interfacial intermetallic compounds. Experimental results and theoretical predictions both suggest that the solder bump size and geometry can influence the as-soldered microstructure; therefore, this factor should be taken into consideration for the design of future reliable ultrafine Pb-free solder joints.