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Statistical/numerical model of the powder-gas jet for extreme high-speed laser material deposition

: Schopphoven, T.; Pirch, N.; Mann, S.; Poprawe, R.; Häfner, C.L.; Schleifenbaum, J.H.

Volltext ()

Coatings 10 (2020), Nr.4, Art. 416, 17 S.
ISSN: 2079-6412
Zeitschriftenaufsatz, Elektronische Publikation
Fraunhofer ILT ()

Extreme high-speed laser material deposition, known by its German acronym EHLA, is a new variant of laser material deposition (LMD) with powdered additives. This variant's process control is unlike that of LMD, where the powder melts as it contacts the melt pool. In the EHLA process, the laser beam melts the powder above the surface of the substrate to deliver a liquid to the melt pool. At a given intensity distribution in a laser beam, the heating of powder particles in the beam path depends largely on the three-dimensional powder particle density distribution (PDD) and the relative position within the laser beam caustic. As a key element of a comprehensive numerical process model for EHLA, this paper presents a statistical/numerical model of the powder-gas jet, as previously published in Experimentelle und modelltheoretische Untersuchungen zum Extremen Hochgeschwindigkeits-Laserauftragschweissen. The powder-gas jet is characterized experimentally and described with a mathematical model. This serves to map the PDD of the powder-gas flow-and particularly the particle trajectories for different grain fractions-as well as the powder mass flows and carrier and inert gas settings, to a theoretical model. The result is a numerical description of the particle trajectories that takes into account the measured particle size distribution with calculations made on the assumption of a constant particle velocity and linear trajectories of the particles.