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General Movement Assessment from videos of computed 3D infant body models is equally effective compared to conventional RGB video rating

: Schroeder, Sebastian A.; Hesse, Nikolas; Weinberger, Raphael; Tacke, Uta; Gerstl, Lucia; Hilgendorff, Anne; Heinen, Florian; Arens, Michael; Dijkstra, Linze J.; Pujades Rocamora, Sergi; Black, Michael J.; Bodensteiner, Christoph; Hadders-Algra, Minja


Early human development 144 (2020), Art. 104967
ISSN: 1872-6232
ISSN: 0378-3782
Fraunhofer IOSB ()
General Movement Assessment (GMA); automated motion analysis

General Movement Assessment (GMA) is a powerful tool to predict Cerebral Palsy (CP). Yet, GMA requires substantial training challenging its broad implementation in clinical routine. This inspired a world-wide quest for automated GMA.
To test whether a low-cost, marker-less system for three-dimensional motion capture from RGB depth sequences using a whole body infant model may serve as the basis for automated GMA.
Study design
Clinical case study at an academic neurodevelopmental outpatient clinic.
Twenty-nine high risk infants were assessed at their clinical follow-up at 2–4 month corrected age (CA). Their neurodevelopmental outcome was assessed regularly up to 12–31 months CA.
Outcome measures
GMA according to Hadders-Algra by a masked GMA-expert of conventional and computed 3D body model (“SMIL motion”) videos of the same GMs. Agreement between both GMAs was tested using dichotomous and graded scaling with Kappa and intraclass correlations, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity to predict CP at ≥12 months CA were assessed.
Agreement of the two GMA ratings was moderate-good for GM-complexity (κ = 0.58; ICC = 0.874 [95%CI 0.730; 0.941]) and substantial-good for fidgety movements (FMs; Kappa = 0.78, ICC = 0.926 [95%CI 0.843; 0.965]). Five children were diagnosed with CP (four bilateral, one unilateral CP). The GMs of the child with unilateral CP were twice rated as mildly abnormal with FMs. GM-complexity and somewhat less FMs, of both conventional and SMIL motion videos predicted bilateral CP comparably to published literature.
Our computed infant 3D full body model is an attractive starting point for automated GMA in infants at risk of CP.