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Biomimetic in vitro test system for evaluation of dental implant materials

: Ehlicke, Franziska; Berndt, Jonathan; Marichikj, Nina; Steinmüller-Nethl, Doris; Walles, Heike; Berndt, Ernst-Ulrich; Hansmann, Jan


Dental materials 36 (2020), Nr.8, S.1059-1070
ISSN: 0109-5641
ISSN: 1879-0097
Fraunhofer ISC ()
dental; implant; human test system; Osseointegration; Biomineralization; wound healing; titanium; ceramic; matrix remodeling

Objectives: Before application in dental practice, novel dental materials are tested in vitro and in vivo to ensure safety and functionality. However, transferability between preclinical and clinical results is often limited. To increase the predictive power of preclinical testing, a biomimetic in vitro test system that mimics the wound niche after implantation was developed.
Methods: First, predetermined implant materials were treated with human blood plasma, M2 macrophages and bone marrow stromal stem cells. Thereby, the three-dimensional wound niche was simulated. Samples were cultured for 28 days, and subsequently analyzed for metabolic activity and biomineralization. Second test level involved a cell-infiltrated bone substitute material for an osseointegration assay to measure mechanical bonding between dental material and bone. Standard and novel dental materials validated the developed test approach.
Results: The developed test system for dental implant materials allowed quantification of biomineralization on implant surface and assessment of the functional stability of mineralized biomaterial-tissue interface. Human blood plasma, M2 macrophages and bone marrow stromal stem cells proved to be crucial components for predictive assessment of implant materials in vitro. Biocompatibility was demonstrated for all tested materials, whereas the degree of deposited mineralized extracellular matrix and mechanical stability differed between the tested materials. Highest amount of functional biomineralization was determined to be on carbon-coated implant surface.
Significance: As an ethical alternative to animal testing, the established in vitro dental test system provides an economic and mid-throughput evaluation of novel dental implant materials or modifications thereof, by applying two successive readout levels: biomineralization and osseointegration.