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Evaluation of Congestion-Enabled Forwarding with Mixed Data Traffic in Vehicular Communications

: Kühlmorgen, Sebastian; Lu, Hongsheng; Festag, Andreas; Kenney, John; Gensheim, Sebastian; Fettweis, Gerhard


IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems 21 (2020), Nr.1, S.233-247
ISSN: 1524-9050
Fraunhofer IVI ()
vehicular communication; V2X; VANETs; decentralized congestion control; Gatekeeper; rate adaptation; LIMERIC; multi-hop; contention-based forwarding; RORA

ITS-G5 is a communication system for vehicle-to-everything communication for road safety and traffic efficiency applications. On the lower layers, it is based on IEEE 802.11 standard and uses a simple ad hoc mode with a random medium access control scheme. Ad hoc networking is realized by a geographical routing scheme that provides single- and multi-hop communication over ITS-G5 links for periodic and event-driven broadcast messages. Specifically, contention-based forwarding (CBF) allows for efficient and reliable multi-hop packet transport by overhearing and timer-based transmission control. To cope with the channel congestion, decentralized congestion control (DCC) adjusts the message rate and ensures that the network load keeps below a predefined threshold of the bandwidth. To enforce a node's message rate, a “ Gatekeeper” above the MAC and beneath CBF is added. Under high network load, this Gatekeeper introduces an additional queuing delay seen by CBF, which can cause its overhearing function to fail. This contribution studies multi-hop forwarding in the context of DCC with the Gatekeeper and LIMERIC as a rate adaptation algorithm. We propose a congestion-enabled forwarding scheme that, in comparison to existing approaches considering DCC and forwarding separately, restores the efficient operation of CBF, and improves the communication performance in terms of reliability and latency for mixed data traffic composed of single- and multi-hop packets with different priorities. The simulations show the performance improvements in a freeway scenario. An analysis assesses the boundary conditions for CBF and the Gatekeeper. Moreover, the analysis corroborates the simulation.