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Nanotopographical Coatings Induce an Early Phenotype-Specific Response of Primary Material-Resident M1 and M2 Macrophages

: Schmitz, Tobias; Jannasch, Maren; Weigel, Tobias; Moseke, Claus; Gbureck, Uwe; Groll, Jürgen; Walles, Heike; Hansmann, Jan

Volltext ()

Materials 13 (2020), Nr.5, Art. 1142, 20 S.
ISSN: 1996-1944
Zeitschriftenaufsatz, Elektronische Publikation
Fraunhofer ISC ()
nanotopographical surfaces; combination of physical vapor deposition and electrochemical etching; defined humanized test system; inflammatory response

Implants elicit an immunological response after implantation that results in the worst case in a complete implant rejection. This biomaterial-induced inflammation is modulated by macrophages and can be influenced by nanotopographical surface structures such as titania nanotubes or fractal titanium nitride (TiN) surfaces. However, their specific impact on a distinct macrophage phenotype has not been identified. By using two different levels of nanostructures and smooth samples as controls, the influence of tubular TiO2 and fractal TiN nanostructures on primary human macrophages with M1 or M2-phenotype was investigated. Therefore, nanotopographical coatings were either, directly generated by physical vapor deposition (PVD) or by electrochemical anodization of titanium PVD coatings. The cellular response of macrophages was quantitatively assessed to demonstrate a difference in biocompatibility of nanotubes in respect to human M1 and M2-macrophages. Depending on the tube diameter of the nanotubular surfaces, low cell numbers and impaired cellular activity, was detected for M2-macrophages, whereas the impact of nanotubes on M1-polarized macrophages was negligible. Importantly, we could confirm this phenotypic response on the fractal TiN surfaces. The results indicate that the investigated topographies specifically impact the macrophage M2-subtype that modulates the formation of the fibrotic capsule and the long-term response to an implant.