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Evaluation of potential environmental toxicity of polymeric nanomaterials and surfactants

: Hering, Indra; Eilebrecht, Elke; Parnham, Michael J.; Günday-Türeli, Nazende; Türeli, Akif Emre; Weiler, Marc; Schäfers, Christoph; Fenske, Martina; Wacker, Matthias G.


Environmental toxicology and pharmacology 76 (2020), Art. 103353
ISSN: 1382-6689
Fraunhofer IME ()
nanomaterials; polymers; surfactants; ecotoxicity; Danio rerio

Nanomaterials have gained huge importance in various fields including nanomedicine. Nanoformulations of drugs and nanocarriers are used to increase pharmaceutical potency. However, it was seen that polymeric nanomaterials can cause negative effects. Thus, it is essential to identify nanomaterials with the least adverse effects on aquatic organisms. To determine the toxicity of polymeric nanomaterials, we investigated the effects of poly(lactic-co-glycolid) acid (PLGA), Eudragit® E 100 and hydroxylpropyl methylcellulose phthalate (HPMCP) on zebrafish embryos using the fish embryo toxicity test (FET). Furthermore, we studied Cremophor® RH40, Cremophor® A25, Pluronic® F127 and Pluronic® F68 applied in the generation of nanoformulations to identify the surfactant with minimal toxic impact. The order of ecotoxicty was HPMCP < PLGA < Eudragit® E100 and Pluronic® F68 < Pluronic® F127 < Cremophor® RH40 < Cremophor® A25. In summary, HPMCP and Pluronic® F68 displayed the least toxic impact, thus suggesting adequate environmental compatibility for the generation of nanomedicines.