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Anomaly-based Face Search

Anomalie-basierte Suche von Gesichtern
: Grebe, Jonas Henry
: Kuijper, Arjan; Terhörst, Philipp

Darmstadt, 2020, 71 S.
Darmstadt, TU, Bachelor Thesis, 2020
Bachelor Thesis
Fraunhofer IGD ()
Lead Topic: Smart City; Research Line: Computer vision (CV); Research Line: Human computer interaction (HCI)

Biometric face identification refers to the use of face images for the automatic identification of individuals. Due to the high performance achieved by current face search algorithms, these algorithms are useful tools, e.g. in criminal investigations. Based on the facial description of a witness, the number of suspects can be significantly reduced. However, while modern face image retrieval approaches either require an accurate verbal description or an example image of the suspect’s face, eyewitness testimonies can seldom provide this level of detail. Moreover, while eyewitness’ recall is one of the most convincing pieces of evidence, it is also one of the most unreliable. Hence, exploiting the more reliable, but vague memories about distinctive facial features directly, such as obvious tattoos, scars or birthmarks, should be considered to filter potential suspects in a first step. This might reduce the risk of wrongful convictions caused by retroactively inferred details in the witness’ recall for subsequent steps. Therefore, this thesis proposes an anomaly-based face search solution that aims at enabling a reduction of the search space solely based on locations of anomalous facial features. We developed an unsupervised image anomaly detection approach based on a cascaded image completion network that allows to roughly localize anomalous regions in face images. (1) This completion model is assumed to fill in deleted regions with probable values conditioned on all the remaining parts of the face image. (2) The reconstruction errors of this model were used as an anomaly signal to create a grid of potential anomaly locations in a given face image. (3) These grids, in the form of a thresholded matrix, were then subsequently used to search for the most relevant images. We evaluated the respective retrieval model on a preprocessed subset of 17.855 images of the VGGFace2 dataset. The three main contributions of this work are (1) a cascaded face image completion approach, (2) an unsupervised inpainting-based anomaly localization approach, and (3) a query-by-anomaly face image retrieval approach. The face inpainting achieved promising results when compared to other recent completion approaches since we didn’t leverage any adversarial component in order to simplify the entire training procedure. These inpaintings enabled to roughly localize anomalies in face images. The proposed retrieval model achieved a 60% hit rate at a penetration rate of about 20% over a gallery of 17.855 images. Despite the limitations of the proposed searching approach, the results revealed the potential benefits of using the more reliable anomaly information to reduce the search space, instead of entirely relying on the elicitation of detailed perpetrator descriptions, either in textual or in visual form.