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Predictors of and longitudinal changes in insulin sensitivity and secretion preceding onset of type 2 diabetes

: Lyssenko, V.; Almgren, P.; Anevski, D.; Perfekt, R.; Lahti, K.; Nissen, M.; Isomaa, B.; Forsen, B.; Homstrom, N.; Saloranta, C.; Taskinen, M.R.; Groop, L.; Tuomi, T.


Diabetes 54 (2005), Nr.1, S.166-174
ISSN: 0012-1797
Fraunhofer ITWM ()

Identification of individuals at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes is a prerequisite for prevention of the disease. We therefore studied risk factors predicting type 2 diabetes in the Botnia Study in western Finland. A total of 2,115 nondiabetic individuals were prospectively followed with repeated oral glucose tolerance tests. After a median follow-up of 6 years, 127 (6%) subjects developed diabetes. A family history of diabetes (hazard ratio [HR) 2.2, P = 0.008), BMI (HR for comparison of values below or above the median 2.1, P < 0.001), waist-to-height index (2.3, P < 0.001), insulin resistance (2.1, P = 0.0004), and beta-cell function adjusted for insulin resistance (2.7, P < 0.0001) predicted diabetes. Marked deterioration in beta-cell function with modest changes in insulin sensitivity was observed during the transition to diabetes. The combination of FPG greater than or equal to 5.6 mmolA, BMI greater than or equal to30 kg/m(2), and family history of diabetes was a strong predictor of diabetes (3.7, P < 0.0001). Of note, using FPG greater than or equal to6.1 mmol/1 or 2-h glucose greater than or equal to7.8 mmol/; did not significantly improve prediction of type 2 diabetes. In conclusion, a marked deterioration in beta-cell function precedes the onset of type 2 diabetes. These individuals can be identified early by knowledge of FPG, BMI, and family history of diabetes.