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Standardization and standards as science and innovation indicators

: Blind, Knut


Glänzel, Wolfgang (Ed.); Moed, Henk F. (Ed.); Schmoch, Ulrich (Ed.); Thelwall, Michael (Ed.):
Springer handbook of science and technology indicators
Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2019 (Springer Handbooks)
ISBN: 978-3-030-02510-6 (Print)
ISBN: 978-3-030-02511-3
DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-02511-3
Aufsatz in Buch
Fraunhofer ISI ()
Fraunhofer FOKUS ()

The focus of innovation policies has shifted from knowledge creation and protection (e. g., by patents) to knowledge diffusion (e. g., via open access) in order to promote their implementation. This has led to an increasing need for innovation indicators that reflect the implementation of knowledge within innovative products and services. Standardization as a kind of open innovation process, and standards as its output, represents a new type of innovation indicator. In this chapter, we begin with a discussion of existing opportunities for using standards and standardization as innovation indicators , including three specific examples of input, throughput, and output indicators. Next we identify challenges that must be addressed to close the data gaps—which are still very significant when compared with patent data. In addition, the broader concept of quality infrastructure is introduced in order to point out the complexity of standards implementation, and its close link to innovation as well. The chapter concludes with examples of how decision makers in industry and policy could make use of a comprehensive database of standardization and standards to evaluate innovation policy initiatives.