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Additive manufacturing of biodegradable metals: Current research status and future perspectives

: Qin, Y.; Wen, P.; Guo, H.; Xia, D.; Zheng, Y.; Jauer, L.; Poprawe, R.; Voshage, M.; Schleifenbaum, J.H.


Acta biomaterialia 98 (2019), S.3-22
ISSN: 1742-7061
ISSN: 1878-7568
Fraunhofer ILT ()

The combination of biodegradable metals and additive manufacturing (AM) leads to a revolutionary change of metal implants in many aspects including materials, design, manufacturing, and clinical applications. The AM of nondegradable metals such as titanium and CoCr alloys has proven to be a tremendous success in clinical applications. The AM of biodegradable metals including magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn) is still in its infancy, although much progress has been made in the research field. Element loss and porosity are common processing problems for AM of biodegradable metals like Zn and Mg, which are mainly caused by evaporation during melting under a high-energy beam. The resulting formation quality and properties are closely related to material, design, and processing, making AM of biodegradable metals a typical interdisciplinary subject involving biomaterials, mechanical engineering, and medicine. This work reviews the state of research and future perspective on AM of biodegradable metals from extensive viewpoints such as material, processing, formation quality, design, microstructure, and properties. Effects of powder properties and processing parameters on formation quality are characterized in detail. The microstructure and metallurgical defects encountered in the AM parts are described. Mechanical and biodegradable properties of AM samples are introduced. Design principles and potential applications of biodegradable metal implants produced by AM are discussed. Finally, current research status is summarized together with some proposed future perspectives for advancing knowledge about AM of biodegradable metals.