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Surface defects reduce Carbon Nanotube toxicity in vitro

: Requardt, H.; Braun, A.; Steinberg, P.; Hampel, S.; Hansen, T.

Volltext ()

Toxicology in vitro 60 (2019), S.12-18
ISSN: 0887-2333
Zeitschriftenaufsatz, Elektronische Publikation
Fraunhofer ITEM ()

The cytotoxicity of two different types of Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs) in A549 lung epithelial cells and HepG2 hepatocytes was investigated. One MWCNT still contained iron that was used as a catalyst during production, while the other one had all iron removed in a post-production heat treatment resulting in significantly fewer surface defects. The WST-8 assay was applied to test cell viability. To check the integrity of the cell membrane, we performed the lactate dehydrogenases assay (LDH) and measured the cellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Finally, to examine cell proliferation, we conducted a cell cycle analysis. The results showed a dose- and time-dependent decrease in cell viability for both MWCNTs in both cell types. Moreover, a dose- and time-dependent increase in LDH leakage was detected, thereby indicating a decreased membrane integrity. The production of ROS was significantly increased in the case of the heat-treated MWCNTs. The heat-treated MWCNTs showed significantly stronger adverse effects when compared to the non-treated MWCNTs. Additionally, the heat-treated MWCNTs induced a dose-dependent cell cycle arrest in A549 cells. Both MWCNTs induced a significant cytotoxicity, whereby the heat treatment, leading to a decrease in surface defects, further increased the indicated adverse effects.