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Synthesis of artificial building blocks for sortase-mediated ligation and their enzymatic linkage

Synthese von artifiziellen Bausteinen für Sortase-vermittelte Ligationen und deren enzymatische Verknüpfung
 
: Dai, X.
: Böker, A.; Schwanenberg, U.; Haag, R.

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Volltext ()

Potsdam, 2018, XIV, 125 S.
Potsdam, Univ., Diss., 2018
URN: urn:nbn:de:kobv:517-opus4-420060
Englisch
Dissertation, Elektronische Publikation
Fraunhofer IAP ()

Abstract
The enzyme Sortase A catalyzes the formation of a peptide bond between the recognition sequence LPXTG and an oligoglycine. While manifold ligations between proteins and various biomolecules, proteins and small synthetic molecules as well as proteins and surfaces have been reported, the aim of this thesis was to investigate the sortase-catalyzed linkage between artificial building blocks. Hence, this could pave the way for the use of sortase A for tasks from a chemical point of view and maybe even materials science.
For the proof of concept, the studied systems were kept as simple as possible at first by choosing easily accessible silica NPs and commercially available polymers. These building blocks were functionalized with peptide motifs for sortase-mediated ligation. Silica nanoparticles were synthesized with diameters of 60 and 200 nm and surface modified with C=C functionalities. Then, peptides bearing a terminal cysteine were covalently linked by means of a thiol-ene reaction. 60 nm SiO2 NPs were functionalized with pentaglycines, while peptides with LPETG motif were linked to 200 nm silica particles. Polyethyleneglycol (PEG) and poly(N isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) were likewise functionalized with peptides by thiol-ene reaction between cysteine residues and C=C units in the polymer end groups. Hence, G5-PEG and PNIPAM-LPETG conjugates were obtained. With this set of building blocks, NP–polymer hybrids, NP–NP, and polymer–polymer structures were generated by sortase-mediated ligation and the product formation shown by transmission electron microscopy, MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry and dynamic light scatting, among others. Thus, the linkage of these artificial building blocks by the enzyme sortase A could be demonstrated.
However, when using commercially available polymers, the purification of the polymer–peptide conjugates was impossible and resulted in a mixture containing unmodified polymer. Therefore, strategies were developed for the own synthesis of pure peptide-polymer and polymer-peptide conjugates as building blocks for sortase-mediated ligation. The designed routes are based on preparing polymer blocks via RAFT polymerization from CTAs that are attached to N- or C-terminus, respectively, of a peptide. GG-PNIPAM was synthesized through attachment of a suitable RAFT CTA to Fmoc-GG in an esterification reaction, followed by polymerization of NIPAM and cleavage of the Fmoc protection group. Furthermore, several peptides were synthesized by solid-phase peptide synthesis. The linkage of a RAFT CTA (or polymerization initiator) to the N-terminus of a peptide can be conducted in an automated fashion as last step in a peptide synthesizer. The synthesis of such a conjugate couldn’t be realized in the time frame of this thesis, but many promising strategies exist to continue this strategy using different coupling reagents. Such polymer building blocks can be used to synthesize protein-polymer conjugates catalyzed by sortase A and the approach can be carried on to the synthesis of block copolymers by using polymer blocks with peptide motifs on both ends.
Although the proof of concept demonstrated in this thesis only shows examples that can be also synthesized by exclusively chemical techniques, a toolbox of such building blocks will enable the future formation of new materials and pave the way for the application of enzymes in materials science. In addition to nanoparticle systems and block copolymers, this also includes combination with protein-based building blocks to form hybrid materials. Hence, sortase could become an enzymatic tool that complements established chemical linking technologies and provides specific peptide motifs that are orthogonal to all existing chemical functional groups.

: http://publica.fraunhofer.de/dokumente/N-555527.html