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Sizing and Improved Grid Integration of Residential PV Systems With Heat Pumps and Battery Storage Systems

: Appen, J. von; Braun, M.


IEEE transactions on energy conversion 34 (2019), Nr.1, S.562-571
ISSN: 0885-8969
Fraunhofer IEE ()

In the future, the remuneration of photovoltaic (PV) grid feed-in might significantly drop in Germany and questions arise if small-scale PV systems remain economically attractive. However, battery storage systems (BSSs) and sector coupling with heat pumps (HPs) provide promising opportunities to increase PV self-consumption and the value of local energy generation, but change the dynamics of PV grid integration. Thus, an optimization model is proposed to enable all involved stakeholders to analyze interdependencies between different flexibility options for PV systems, incentive, and grid integration. A case study-based approach allows an efficient evaluation of future PV systems with BSSs and HPs, the impact of such decentralized power-heat-storage systems on grid integration as well as proper incentive setting for sector coupling. The analysis shows that such shifting technologies are required to avoid undersizing of PV systems. BSSs only provide a benefit for the adoption of inflexible HPs, which is not preferable from a grid integration point of view. Operational incentives, such as peak charges and PV feed-in limits, offer a chance to foster PV grid integration and use new flexibilities in a grid-supporting way. The adoption of market-oriented operation leads to small benefit for such systems, which heavily rely on PV self-consumption.