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MicroRNAs in the Host Response to Viral Infections of Veterinary Importance

: Samir, M.; Vaas, L.A.I.; Pessler, F.

Volltext ()

Frontiers in veterinary science 3 (2016), Art.86, 17 S.
ISSN: 2297-1769
Zeitschriftenaufsatz, Elektronische Publikation
Fraunhofer IME ()

The discovery of small regulatory non-coding RNAs has been an exciting advance in the field of genomics. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous RNA molecules, approximately 22 nucleotides in length, that regulate gene expression, mostly at the posttranscriptional level. MiRNA profiling technologies have made it possible to identify and quantify novel miRNAs and to study their regulation and potential roles in disease pathogenesis. Although miRNAs have been extensively investigated in viral infections of humans, their implications in viral diseases affecting animals of veterinary importance are much less understood. The number of annotated miRNAs in different animal species is growing continuously, and novel roles in regulating host–pathogen interactions are being discovered, for instance, miRNA-mediated augmentation of viral transcription and replication. In this review, we present an overview of synthesis and function of miRNAs and an update on the current state of research on host-encoded miRNAs in the genesis of viral infectious diseases in their natural animal host as well as in selected in vivo and in vitro laboratory models.