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Thermo-chemical Conversion of Biomass and Upgrading to Biofuel: The Thermo-Catalytic Reforming Process - A Review

: Schmitt, Nina; Apfelbacher, Andreas; Jäger, Nils; Daschner, Robert; Stenzel, Fabian; Hornung, Andreas


Biofuels, bioproducts & biorefining : Biofpr 13 (2019), Nr.3, S.822-837
ISSN: 1932-104X
ISSN: 1932-1031
Fraunhofer UMSICHT Sulzbach-Rosenberg ()
thermo-catalytic reforming; intermediate pyrolysis; biomass; catalytic hydrotreating; biofuel; bio‐oil upgrading

Thermo‐catalytic reforming (TCR®) is a promising conversion technology for the production of liquid bio‐fuels. The process is a proven opportunity to convert biological wastes and residues into hydrogen‐rich syngas, high‐quality oil, and char without volatiles. Bio‐oil produced from TCR® has a high carbon content, low water content, low oxygen content, and a high heating value; it is therefore directly applicable as feed in boilers or as blend in dual fuel engines. A feasible opportunity for using bio‐oil in automotive combustion engines is a further upgrade step to bio‐fuel by hydrogenation. During this hydrotreatment, heterogeneous atoms like sulfur, nitrogen, and oxygen are removed or substituted with hydrogen. Fraunhofer UMSICHT already produces gasoline and diesel that comply with European fuel standards EN 228 and EN 590, using different catalysts like NiMo/Al2O3, CoMo/Al2O3, and Ru/C for hydrogenation at 643 K and a constant hydrogen pressure of 14 MPa. Various hydrocarbons and benzene derivatives are verified after hydrotreating.